- Middle Kingdom

Achievements were made in literature and culture during the Middle Kingdom, yet this was a time of political unrest for Egypt. There were many contacts made between the Egyptians and the surrounding cultures in greater Arabia, Africa, and the Middle East. Egyptians borrowed customs from these other cultures and added them into their lives. Evidence of this cultural mosaic can be found in the artwork and writings from the time period. The Nubians from the south ruled for a short time. Next, the Semitic people from Levant, which is modern-day Syria and Lebanon, took control with their bronze weapons and compound bows until another shift of power came with the Hyksos. Egyptian culture remained prevalent until the Egyptians finally prevailed at the end of the Middle Kingdom.