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Site: Learnbps
Course: BPSS (MAT) Mathematics Standards (S-MAT)
PRIORITIZED

# Geometry

## Narrative for the (G) Geometry

Grade 4 students describe, analyze, compare, and classify two-dimensional shapes by their properties, including explicit use of angle sizes and the related geometric properties of perpendicularity and parallelism.

By the end of Grade 4, students develop explicit awareness of and vocabulary for many concepts they have been developing, including points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Such mathematical terms are useful in communicating geometric ideas, but more important is that constructing examples of these concepts, such as drawing angles and triangles that are acute, obtuse, and right, help students form richer concept images connected to verbal definitions.

## Calculation Method for Domains

Domains are larger groups of related standards. The Domain Grade is a calculation of all the related standards. Click on the standard name below each Domain to access the learning targets and rubrics/ proficiency scales for individual standards within the domain.

#### MAT-04.G.02

(G) Geometry
Cluster: Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles.

# Measurement and Data

## Narrative for the (MD) Measurement and Data

In Grade 4, students build on competencies in measurement and in building and relating units and units of units that they have developed in number, geometry, and geometric measurement.

Fourth graders learn the relative sizes of measurement units within a system of measurement4.MD.1 including: length: meter (m), kilometer (km), centimeter (cm), millimeter (mm); volume: liter (l), milliliter (ml, 1 cubic centimeter of water; a liter, then, is 1000 ml); mass: gram (g, about the weight of a cc of water), kilogram (kg); time: hour (hr), minute (min), second (sec).

Students learn to consider perimeter and area of rectangles, begun in Grade 3, more abstractly. Based on work in previous grades with multiplication, spatially structuring arrays, and area, they abstract the formula for the area of a rectangle.Students learn to apply these understandings and formulas to the solution of real-world and mathematical problems.

Students can use these skills to solve problems, including problems that arise from analyzing line plots. For example, with reference to the line plot above, students might find the difference between the greatest and least values in the data.

## Calculation Method for Domains

Domains are larger groups of related standards. The Domain Grade is a calculation of all the related standards. Click on the standard name below each Domain to access the learning targets and rubrics/ proficiency scales for individual standards within the domain.

#### MAT-04.MD.06

(MD) Measurement and Data
Cluster: Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles.

# Number and Operation in Base Ten

## Narrative for the (NBT) Number and Operation in Base Ten

At Grade 4, students extend their work in the base-ten system. They use standard algorithms to fluently add and subtract. They use methods based on place value and properties of operations supported by suitable representations to multiply and divide with multi-digit numbers. Visual representations such as area and array diagrams that students draw and connect to equations and other written numerical work are useful for this purpose. By reasoning repeatedly about the connection between math drawings and written numerical work, students can come to see multiplication and division algorithms as abbreviations or summaries of their reasoning about quantities.

Building on earlier work, students generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers to read, write, and compare whole numerals between 1,000 and 1,000,000. They also extend understanding of place value to include decimals to hundredths and fractional quantities 1/10 and 1/100.

## Calculation Method for Domains

Domains are larger groups of related standards. The Domain Grade is a calculation of all the related standards. Click on the standard name below each Domain to access the learning targets and rubrics/ proficiency scales for individual standards within the domain.

#### MAT-04.NBT.02

(NBT) Number and Operations in Base Ten
Cluster: Generalize place value understanding for multi­digit whole numbers. Limited to whole numbers less than or equal to 1,000,000.

#### MAT-04.NBT.04

(NBT) Number and Operations in Base Ten
Cluster: Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-­digit arithmetic.

#### MAT-04.NBT.05

(NBT) Number and Operations in Base Ten
Cluster: Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi­-digit arithmetic.

#### MAT-04.NBT.06

(NBT) Number and Operations in Base Ten
Cluster: Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi­-digit arithmetic.

# Number and Operations - Fraction

## Narrative for (NF) Number and Operations - Fractions

Grade 4 students learn a fundamental property of equivalent fractions: multiplying the numerator and denominator of a fraction by the same non-zero whole number results in a fraction that represents the same number as the original fraction. This property forms the basis for much of their other work in Grade 4, including the comparison, addition, and subtraction of fractions and the introduction of decimals.

Grade 4 students use their understanding of equivalent fractions to compare fractions with different numerators and different denominators. Students use area models and number line diagrams to reason about equivalence.  Students also compare decimals using the meaning of a decimal as a fraction, making sure to compare fractions with the same denominator. For example, to compare 0.2 and 0.09, students think of them as 0.20 and 0:09 and see that 0.20>0.09 because 20/100 > 9/100.

Using the understanding gained from work with whole numbers of the relationship between addition and subtraction, students add and subtract fractions with the same denominator. Students also compute sums of whole numbers and fractions, by representing the whole number as an equivalent fraction with the same denominator as the fraction. Grade 4 students also solve word problems involving multiplication of a fraction by a whole number.

## Calculation Method for Domains

Domains are larger groups of related standards. The Domain Grade is a calculation of all the related standards. Click on the standard name below each Domain to access the learning targets and rubrics/ proficiency scales for individual standards within the domain.

#### MAT-04.NF.02

(NF) Number and Operations - Fractions
Cluster: Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering.

#### MAT-04.NF.03

(NF) Number and Operations - Fractions
Cluster: Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers.

##### MAT-04.NF.03 Understand a fraction a/b with a > 1 as a sum of unit fractions 1/b.
a. Understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole.
b. Decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator in more than one way, recording each decomposition with an equation. Justify decompositions by using a visual fraction model or other strategies.
c. Add and subtract mixed numbers with like-denominators.
d. Using visual fraction models and equations, solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole and having like denominators.

#### MAT-04.NF.04

(NF) Number and Operations - Fractions
Cluster: Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers.

##### MAT-04.NF.04 Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number.
a. Understand a fraction a/b as a multiple of 1/b.
b. Understand a multiple of a/b as a multiple of 1/b, and use this understanding to multiply a fraction by a whole number.
c. Using visual fraction models and equations, solve word problems involving multiplication of a fraction by a whole number.

#### MAT-04.NF.07

(NF) Number and Operations - Fractions
Cluster: Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions.

# Operations and Algebraic Thinking

## Narrative for the (OA) Operations and Algebraic Thinking

Algebraic thinking is about generalizing arithmetic operations and operating on unknown quantities.  It involves recognizing and analyzing patterns and developing generalizations about these patterns.  In algebra, symbols can be used to represent generalizations. Operations and Algebraic Thinking deals with the basic operations - addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division - the relationships they model, the kinds of problems they can be used to solve, as well as, their mathematical properties and relationships.

Fourth graders extend problem solving to multi-step word problems using the four operations posed with whole numbers.  Some problems might easily be represented with a single equation, and others will be more sensibly represented by more than one equation or a diagram and one or more equations. Consider two diving boards, one 40 feet high, the other 8 feet high. Students in earlier grades learned to compare these heights in an additive sense—“This one is 32 feet higher than that one”—using addition and subtraction to solve word problems. Students in Grade 4 learn to compare these quantities multiplicatively as well: “This one is 5 times as high as that one.”

Students reason about number or shape patterns, connecting a rule for a given pattern with its sequence of numbers or shapes. In examining numerical sequences and patterns, fourth graders can explore rules of repeatedly adding the same whole number or repeatedly multiplying by the same whole number.

Fourth graders also build upon earlier understandings about multiplication and division. Students examine various patterns in factor pairs by finding factor pairs for all numbers 1 to 100, and extend the idea of decomposition to multiplication and learn to use the terms multiple, prime number, composite number.

## Calculation Method for Domains

Domains are larger groups of related standards. The Domain Grade is a calculation of all the related standards. Click on the standard name below each Domain to access the learning targets and rubrics/ proficiency scales for individual standards within the domain.

#### MAT-04.OA.03

(OA) Operations and Algebraic Thinking
Cluster: Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions.

(G) GEOMETRY

# Geometry

## Narrative for the (G) Geometry

Grade 4 students describe, analyze, compare, and classify two-dimensional shapes by their properties, including explicit use of angle sizes and the related geometric properties of perpendicularity and parallelism.

By the end of Grade 4, students develop explicit awareness of and vocabulary for many concepts they have been developing, including points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Such mathematical terms are useful in communicating geometric ideas, but more important is that constructing examples of these concepts, such as drawing angles and triangles that are acute, obtuse, and right, help students form richer concept images connected to verbal definitions.

## Calculation Method for Domains

Domains are larger groups of related standards. The Domain Grade is a calculation of all the related standards. Click on the standard name below each Domain to access the learning targets and rubrics/ proficiency scales for individual standards within the domain.

#### MAT-04.G.01

Under Development

 MAT-04 Targeted Standards(G) Domain: GeometryCluster: Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles. MAT-04.G.01 Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in two-dimensional figures.

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## Proficiency (Rubric) Scale

 Score Description Sample Activity 4.0 Student is able to - 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” Student is able to - 2.5 No major errors or emissions regarding 2.0 content and partial knowledge of the 3.0 content. 2.0 Student is able to - 1.5 In addition to 1.0 content, student has partial knowledge of the 2.0 and/or 3.0 content. 1.0 Student is able to - 0.5 Limited or no understanding of the skill id demonstrated.

## Resources

### Vocabulary

• List

#### MAT-04.G.02

(G) Geometry
Cluster: Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles.

#### MAT-04.G.03

Under Development

 MAT-04 Targeted Standards(G) Domain: GeometryCluster: Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles. MAT-04.G.03 Recognize a line of symmetry for a two-dimensional figure as a line across the figure such that the figure can be folded along the line into matching parts. Identify line-symmetric figures and draw lines of symmetry.

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## Proficiency (Rubric) Scale

 Score Description Sample Activity 4.0 Student is able to - 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” Student is able to - 2.5 No major errors or emissions regarding 2.0 content and partial knowledge of the 3.0 content. 2.0 Student is able to - 1.5 In addition to 1.0 content, student has partial knowledge of the 2.0 and/or 3.0 content. 1.0 Student is able to - 0.5 Limited or no understanding of the skill id demonstrated.

## Resources

### Vocabulary

• List

(MD) MEASUREMENT AND DATA

# Measurement and Data

## Narrative for the (MD) Measurement and Data

In Grade 4, students build on competencies in measurement and in building and relating units and units of units that they have developed in number, geometry, and geometric measurement.

Fourth graders learn the relative sizes of measurement units within a system of measurement4.MD.1 including: length: meter (m), kilometer (km), centimeter (cm), millimeter (mm); volume: liter (l), milliliter (ml, 1 cubic centimeter of water; a liter, then, is 1000 ml); mass: gram (g, about the weight of a cc of water), kilogram (kg); time: hour (hr), minute (min), second (sec).

Students learn to consider perimeter and area of rectangles, begun in Grade 3, more abstractly. Based on work in previous grades with multiplication, spatially structuring arrays, and area, they abstract the formula for the area of a rectangle.Students learn to apply these understandings and formulas to the solution of real-world and mathematical problems.

Students can use these skills to solve problems, including problems that arise from analyzing line plots. For example, with reference to the line plot above, students might find the difference between the greatest and least values in the data.

## Calculation Method for Domains

Domains are larger groups of related standards. The Domain Grade is a calculation of all the related standards. Click on the standard name below each Domain to access the learning targets and rubrics/ proficiency scales for individual standards within the domain.

#### MAT-04.MD.01

Under Development

 MAT-04 Targeted Standards(MD) Domain: Measurement and DataCluster: Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit. MAT-04.MD.01 Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two-column table. For example, know that 1 ft is 12 times as long as 1 in. Express the length of a 4 ft snake as 48 in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36), ...

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## Proficiency (Rubric) Scale

 Score Description Sample Activity 4.0 Student is able to - 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” Student is able to - 2.5 No major errors or emissions regarding 2.0 content and partial knowledge of the 3.0 content. 2.0 Student is able to - 1.5 In addition to 1.0 content, student has partial knowledge of the 2.0 and/or 3.0 content. 1.0 Student is able to - 0.5 Limited or no understanding of the skill id demonstrated.

## Resources

### Vocabulary

• List

#### MAT-04.MD.02

Under Development

 MAT-04 Targeted Standards(MD) Domain: Measurement and DataCluster: Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit. MAT-04.MD.02 Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.

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## Proficiency (Rubric) Scale

 Score Description Sample Activity 4.0 Student is able to - 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” Student is able to - 2.5 No major errors or emissions regarding 2.0 content and partial knowledge of the 3.0 content. 2.0 Student is able to - 1.5 In addition to 1.0 content, student has partial knowledge of the 2.0 and/or 3.0 content. 1.0 Student is able to - 0.5 Limited or no understanding of the skill id demonstrated.

## Resources

### Vocabulary

• List

#### MAT-04.MD.03

Under Development

 MAT-04 Targeted Standards(MD) Domain: Measurement and DataCluster: Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit. MAT-04.MD.03 Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems. For example, find the width of a rectangular room given the area of the flooring and the length, by viewing the area formula as a multiplication equation with an unknown factor.

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## Proficiency (Rubric) Scale

 Score Description Sample Activity 4.0 Student is able to - 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” Student is able to - 2.5 No major errors or emissions regarding 2.0 content and partial knowledge of the 3.0 content. 2.0 Student is able to - 1.5 In addition to 1.0 content, student has partial knowledge of the 2.0 and/or 3.0 content. 1.0 Student is able to - 0.5 Limited or no understanding of the skill id demonstrated.

## Resources

### Vocabulary

• List

#### MAT-04.MD.04

Under Development

 MAT-04 Targeted Standards(MD) Domain: Measurement and DataCluster: Represent and interpret data. MAT-04.MD.04 Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions by using information presented in line plots. For example, from a line plot find and interpret the difference in length between the longest and shortest specimens in an insect collection.

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## Proficiency (Rubric) Scale

 Score Description Sample Activity 4.0 Student is able to - 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” Student is able to - 2.5 No major errors or emissions regarding 2.0 content and partial knowledge of the 3.0 content. 2.0 Student is able to - 1.5 In addition to 1.0 content, student has partial knowledge of the 2.0 and/or 3.0 content. 1.0 Student is able to - 0.5 Limited or no understanding of the skill id demonstrated.

## Resources

### Vocabulary

• List

#### MAT-04.MD.05

Under Development

 MAT-04 Targeted Standards(MD) Domain: Measurement and DataCluster: Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles. MAT-04.MD.05 Recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed wherever two rays share a common endpoint, and understand concepts of angle measurement:

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## Proficiency (Rubric) Scale

 Score Description Sample Activity 4.0 Student is able to - 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” Student is able to - 2.5 No major errors or emissions regarding 2.0 content and partial knowledge of the 3.0 content. 2.0 Student is able to - 1.5 In addition to 1.0 content, student has partial knowledge of the 2.0 and/or 3.0 content. 1.0 Student is able to - 0.5 Limited or no understanding of the skill id demonstrated.

## Resources

### Vocabulary

• List

#### MAT-04.MD.05.a

Under Development

 MAT-04 Targeted Standards(MD) Domain: Measurement and DataCluster: Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles. MAT-04.MD.05.a Recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed wherever two rays share a common endpoint, and understand concepts of angle measurement: An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its center at the common endpoint of the rays, by considering the fraction of the circular arc between the points where the two rays intersect the circle. An angle that turns through 1/360 of a circle is called a one-degree angle, and can be used to measure angles.

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## Proficiency (Rubric) Scale

 Score Description Sample Activity 4.0 Student is able to - 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” Student is able to - 2.5 No major errors or emissions regarding 2.0 content and partial knowledge of the 3.0 content. 2.0 Student is able to - 1.5 In addition to 1.0 content, student has partial knowledge of the 2.0 and/or 3.0 content. 1.0 Student is able to - 0.5 Limited or no understanding of the skill id demonstrated.

## Resources

### Vocabulary

• List

#### MAT-04.MD.05.b

Under Development

 MAT-04 Targeted Standards(MD) Domain: Measurement and DataCluster: Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles. MAT-04.MD.05.b Recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed wherever two rays share a common endpoint, and understand concepts of angle measurement: An angle that turns through n one-degree angles is said to have an angle measure of n degrees.

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## Proficiency (Rubric) Scale

 Score Description Sample Activity 4.0 Student is able to - 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” Student is able to - 2.5 No major errors or emissions regarding 2.0 content and partial knowledge of the 3.0 content. 2.0 Student is able to - 1.5 In addition to 1.0 content, student has partial knowledge of the 2.0 and/or 3.0 content. 1.0 Student is able to - 0.5 Limited or no understanding of the skill id demonstrated.

## Resources

### Vocabulary

• List

#### MAT-04.MD.06

(MD) Measurement and Data
Cluster: Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles.

#### MAT-04.MD.07

Under Development

 MAT-04 Targeted Standards(MD) Domain: Measurement and DataCluster: Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles. MAT-04.MD.07 Recognize angle measure as additive. When an angle is decomposed into non-overlapping parts, the angle measure of the whole is the sum of the angle measures of the parts. Solve addition and subtraction problems to find unknown angles on a diagram in real world and mathematical problems, e.g., by using an equation with a symbol for the unknown angle measure.

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## Proficiency (Rubric) Scale

 Score Description Sample Activity 4.0 Student is able to - 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” Student is able to - 2.5 No major errors or emissions regarding 2.0 content and partial knowledge of the 3.0 content. 2.0 Student is able to - 1.5 In addition to 1.0 content, student has partial knowledge of the 2.0 and/or 3.0 content. 1.0 Student is able to - 0.5 Limited or no understanding of the skill id demonstrated.

## Resources

### Vocabulary

• List

(NBT) NUMBER AND OPERATIONS IN BASE TEN

# Number and Operation in Base Ten

## Narrative for the (NBT) Number and Operation in Base Ten

At Grade 4, students extend their work in the base-ten system. They use standard algorithms to fluently add and subtract. They use methods based on place value and properties of operations supported by suitable representations to multiply and divide with multi-digit numbers. Visual representations such as area and array diagrams that students draw and connect to equations and other written numerical work are useful for this purpose. By reasoning repeatedly about the connection between math drawings and written numerical work, students can come to see multiplication and division algorithms as abbreviations or summaries of their reasoning about quantities.

Building on earlier work, students generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers to read, write, and compare whole numerals between 1,000 and 1,000,000. They also extend understanding of place value to include decimals to hundredths and fractional quantities 1/10 and 1/100.

## Calculation Method for Domains

Domains are larger groups of related standards. The Domain Grade is a calculation of all the related standards. Click on the standard name below each Domain to access the learning targets and rubrics/ proficiency scales for individual standards within the domain.

#### MAT-04.NBT.01

Under Development

 MAT-04 Targeted Standards(NBT) Domain: Number and Operations in Base TenCluster: Generalize place value understanding for multi­digit whole numbers. Limited to whole numbers less than or equal to 1,000,000. MAT-04.NBT.01 Recognize that in a multi-digit whole number, a digit in one place represents ten times what it represents in the place to its right. For example, recognize that 700 ÷ 70 = 10 by applying concepts of place value and division.

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## Proficiency (Rubric) Scale

 Score Description Sample Activity 4.0 Student is able to - 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” Student is able to - 2.5 No major errors or emissions regarding 2.0 content and partial knowledge of the 3.0 content. 2.0 Student is able to - 1.5 In addition to 1.0 content, student has partial knowledge of the 2.0 and/or 3.0 content. 1.0 Student is able to - 0.5 Limited or no understanding of the skill id demonstrated.

## Resources

### Vocabulary

• List

#### MAT-04.NBT.02

(NBT) Number and Operations in Base Ten
Cluster: Generalize place value understanding for multi­digit whole numbers. Limited to whole numbers less than or equal to 1,000,000.

#### MAT-04.NBT.03

Under Development

 MAT-04 Targeted Standards(NBT) Domain: Number and Operations in Base TenCluster: Generalize place value understanding for multi­digit whole numbers. MAT-04.NBT.03 Use place value understanding to round multi-digit whole numbers to any place.

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## Proficiency (Rubric) Scale

 Score Description Sample Activity 4.0 Student is able to - 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” Student is able to - 2.5 No major errors or emissions regarding 2.0 content and partial knowledge of the 3.0 content. 2.0 Student is able to - 1.5 In addition to 1.0 content, student has partial knowledge of the 2.0 and/or 3.0 content. 1.0 Student is able to - 0.5 Limited or no understanding of the skill id demonstrated.

## Resources

### Vocabulary

• List

#### MAT-04.NBT.04

(NBT) Number and Operations in Base Ten
Cluster: Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-­digit arithmetic.

#### MAT-04.NBT.05

(NBT) Number and Operations in Base Ten
Cluster: Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi­-digit arithmetic.

#### MAT-04.NBT.06

(NBT) Number and Operations in Base Ten
Cluster: Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi­-digit arithmetic.

##### MAT-04.NBT.06 Find whole-number quotients and remainders with up to four-digit dividends and one-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.

(NF) NUMBER AND OPERATIONS - FRACTIONS

# Number and Operations - Fraction

## Narrative for (NF) Number and Operations - Fractions

Grade 4 students learn a fundamental property of equivalent fractions: multiplying the numerator and denominator of a fraction by the same non-zero whole number results in a fraction that represents the same number as the original fraction. This property forms the basis for much of their other work in Grade 4, including the comparison, addition, and subtraction of fractions and the introduction of decimals.

Grade 4 students use their understanding of equivalent fractions to compare fractions with different numerators and different denominators. Students use area models and number line diagrams to reason about equivalence.  Students also compare decimals using the meaning of a decimal as a fraction, making sure to compare fractions with the same denominator. For example, to compare 0.2 and 0.09, students think of them as 0.20 and 0:09 and see that 0.20>0.09 because 20/100 > 9/100.

Using the understanding gained from work with whole numbers of the relationship between addition and subtraction, students add and subtract fractions with the same denominator. Students also compute sums of whole numbers and fractions, by representing the whole number as an equivalent fraction with the same denominator as the fraction. Grade 4 students also solve word problems involving multiplication of a fraction by a whole number.

## Calculation Method for Domains

Domains are larger groups of related standards. The Domain Grade is a calculation of all the related standards. Click on the standard name below each Domain to access the learning targets and rubrics/ proficiency scales for individual standards within the domain.

#### MAT-04.NF.01

Under Development

 MAT-04 Targeted Standards(NF) Domain: Number and Operations - FractionsCluster: Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering. MAT-04.NF.01 Explain why a fraction a/b is equivalent to a fraction (n x a)/(n x b) by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are the same size. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent fractions.

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## Proficiency (Rubric) Scale

 Score Description Sample Activity 4.0 Student is able to - 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” Student is able to - 2.5 No major errors or emissions regarding 2.0 content and partial knowledge of the 3.0 content. 2.0 Student is able to - 1.5 In addition to 1.0 content, student has partial knowledge of the 2.0 and/or 3.0 content. 1.0 Student is able to - 0.5 Limited or no understanding of the skill id demonstrated.

## Resources

### Vocabulary

• List

#### MAT-04.NF.02

(NF) Number and Operations - Fractions
Cluster: Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering.

#### MAT-04.NF.03

(NF) Number and Operations - Fractions
Cluster: Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers.

##### MAT-04.NF.03 Understand a fraction a/b with a > 1 as a sum of unit fractions 1/b.
a. Understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole.
b. Decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator in more than one way, recording each decomposition with an equation. Justify decompositions by using a visual fraction model or other strategies.
c. Add and subtract mixed numbers with like-denominators.
d. Using visual fraction models and equations, solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole and having like denominators.

#### MAT-04.NF.03.a

Under Development

 MAT-04 Targeted Standards(NF) Domain: Number and Operations - FractionsCluster: Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers. MAT-04.NF.03.a Understand a fraction a/b with a > 1 as a sum of fractions 1/b. Understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole.

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## Proficiency (Rubric) Scale

 Score Description Sample Activity 4.0 Student is able to - 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” Student is able to - 2.5 No major errors or emissions regarding 2.0 content and partial knowledge of the 3.0 content. 2.0 Student is able to - 1.5 In addition to 1.0 content, student has partial knowledge of the 2.0 and/or 3.0 content. 1.0 Student is able to - 0.5 Limited or no understanding of the skill id demonstrated.

## Resources

### Vocabulary

• List

#### MAT-04.NF.03.b

Under Development

 MAT-04 Targeted Standards(NF) Domain: Number and Operations - FractionsCluster: Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers. MAT-04.NF.03.b Understand a fraction a/b with a > 1 as a sum of fractions 1/b. Decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator in more than one way, recording each decomposition by an equation. Justify decompositions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. Examples: 3/8 = 1/8 + 1/8 + 1/8 ; 3/8 = 1/8 + 2/8 ; 2 1/8 = 1 + 1 + 1/8 = 8/8 + 8/8 + 1/8.

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## Proficiency (Rubric) Scale

 Score Description Sample Activity 4.0 Student is able to - 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” Student is able to - 2.5 No major errors or emissions regarding 2.0 content and partial knowledge of the 3.0 content. 2.0 Student is able to - 1.5 In addition to 1.0 content, student has partial knowledge of the 2.0 and/or 3.0 content. 1.0 Student is able to - 0.5 Limited or no understanding of the skill id demonstrated.

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#### MAT-04.NF.03.c

Under Development

 MAT-04 Targeted Standards(NF) Domain: Number and Operations - FractionsCluster: Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers. MAT-04.NF.03.c Understand a fraction a/b with a > 1 as a sum of fractions 1/b. Add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators, e.g., by replacing each mixed number with an equivalent fraction, and/or by using properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.

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## Proficiency (Rubric) Scale

 Score Description Sample Activity 4.0 Student is able to - 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” Student is able to - 2.5 No major errors or emissions regarding 2.0 content and partial knowledge of the 3.0 content. 2.0 Student is able to - 1.5 In addition to 1.0 content, student has partial knowledge of the 2.0 and/or 3.0 content. 1.0 Student is able to - 0.5 Limited or no understanding of the skill id demonstrated.

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#### MAT-04.NF.03.d

Under Development

 MAT-04 Targeted Standards(NF) Domain: Number and Operations - FractionsCluster: Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers. MAT-04.NF.03.d Understand a fraction a/b with a > 1 as a sum of fractions 1/b. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole and having like denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.

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## Proficiency (Rubric) Scale

 Score Description Sample Activity 4.0 Student is able to - 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” Student is able to - 2.5 No major errors or emissions regarding 2.0 content and partial knowledge of the 3.0 content. 2.0 Student is able to - 1.5 In addition to 1.0 content, student has partial knowledge of the 2.0 and/or 3.0 content. 1.0 Student is able to - 0.5 Limited or no understanding of the skill id demonstrated.

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#### MAT-04.NF.04

(NF) Number and Operations - Fractions
Cluster: Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers.

##### MAT-04.NF.04 Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number.
a. Understand a fraction a/b as a multiple of 1/b.
b. Understand a multiple of a/b as a multiple of 1/b, and use this understanding to multiply a fraction by a whole number.
c. Using visual fraction models and equations, solve word problems involving multiplication of a fraction by a whole number.

#### MAT-04.NF.04.a

Under Development

 MAT-04 Targeted Standards(NF) Domain: Number and Operations - FractionsCluster: Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers. MAT-04.NF.04 Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number. Understand a fraction a/b as a multiple of 1/b. For example use a visual fraction model to represent 5/4 as the product 5 x (1/4), recording the conclusion by the equation 5/4 = 5 x (1/4).

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## Proficiency (Rubric) Scale

 Score Description Sample Activity 4.0 Student is able to - 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” Student is able to - 2.5 No major errors or emissions regarding 2.0 content and partial knowledge of the 3.0 content. 2.0 Student is able to - 1.5 In addition to 1.0 content, student has partial knowledge of the 2.0 and/or 3.0 content. 1.0 Student is able to - 0.5 Limited or no understanding of the skill id demonstrated.

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#### MAT-04.NF.04.b

Under Development

 MAT-04 Targeted Standards(NF) Domain: Number and Operations - FractionsCluster: Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers. MAT-04.NF.04.b Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number. Understand a multiple of a/b as a multiple of 1/b, and use this understanding to multiply a fraction by a whole number. For example, use a visual fraction model to express 3 x (2/5) as 6 x (1/5), recognizing this product as 6/5. (In general, n x (a/b) = (n x a)/b).

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## Proficiency (Rubric) Scale

 Score Description Sample Activity 4.0 Student is able to - 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” Student is able to - 2.5 No major errors or emissions regarding 2.0 content and partial knowledge of the 3.0 content. 2.0 Student is able to - 1.5 In addition to 1.0 content, student has partial knowledge of the 2.0 and/or 3.0 content. 1.0 Student is able to - 0.5 Limited or no understanding of the skill id demonstrated.

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#### MAT-04.NF.04.c

Under Development

 MAT-04 Targeted Standards(NF) Domain: Number and Operations - FractionsCluster: Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers. MAT-04.NF.04.c Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number. Solve word problems involving multiplication of a fraction by a whole number, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example: If each person at a party will eat 3/8 of a pound of roast beef, and there will be 5 people at the party, how many pounds of roast beef will be needed? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie?

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## Proficiency (Rubric) Scale

 Score Description Sample Activity 4.0 Student is able to - 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” Student is able to - 2.5 No major errors or emissions regarding 2.0 content and partial knowledge of the 3.0 content. 2.0 Student is able to - 1.5 In addition to 1.0 content, student has partial knowledge of the 2.0 and/or 3.0 content. 1.0 Student is able to - 0.5 Limited or no understanding of the skill id demonstrated.

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#### MAT-04.NF.05

Under Development

 MAT-04 Targeted Standards(NF) Domain: Number and Operations - FractionsCluster: Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fraction. MAT-04.NF.05 Express a fraction with denominator 10 as an equivalent fraction with denominator 100, and use this technique to add two fractions with respective denominators 10 and 100. For example, express 3/10 as 30/100 and add 3/10 + 4/100 = 34/100.

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## Proficiency (Rubric) Scale

 Score Description Sample Activity 4.0 Student is able to - 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” Student is able to - 2.5 No major errors or emissions regarding 2.0 content and partial knowledge of the 3.0 content. 2.0 Student is able to - 1.5 In addition to 1.0 content, student has partial knowledge of the 2.0 and/or 3.0 content. 1.0 Student is able to - 0.5 Limited or no understanding of the skill id demonstrated.

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#### MAT-04.NF.06

Under Development

 MAT-04 Targeted Standards(NF) Domain: Number and Operations - FractionsCluster: Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions. MAT-04.NF.06 Use decimal notation for fractions with denominators 10 or 100. For example, rewrite 0.62 as 62/100; describe a length as 0.62 meters; locate 0.62 on a number line diagram.

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## Proficiency (Rubric) Scale

 Score Description Sample Activity 4.0 Student is able to - 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” Student is able to - 2.5 No major errors or emissions regarding 2.0 content and partial knowledge of the 3.0 content. 2.0 Student is able to - 1.5 In addition to 1.0 content, student has partial knowledge of the 2.0 and/or 3.0 content. 1.0 Student is able to - 0.5 Limited or no understanding of the skill id demonstrated.

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#### MAT-04.NF.07

(NF) Number and Operations - Fractions
Cluster: Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions.

##### MAT-04.NF.07 Compare two decimals to hundredths by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two decimals refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions.

(OA) OPERATIONS AND ALGEBRAIC THINKING

# Operations and Algebraic Thinking

## Narrative for the (OA) Operations and Algebraic Thinking

Algebraic thinking is about generalizing arithmetic operations and operating on unknown quantities.  It involves recognizing and analyzing patterns and developing generalizations about these patterns.  In algebra, symbols can be used to represent generalizations. Operations and Algebraic Thinking deals with the basic operations - addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division - the relationships they model, the kinds of problems they can be used to solve, as well as, their mathematical properties and relationships.

Fourth graders extend problem solving to multi-step word problems using the four operations posed with whole numbers.  Some problems might easily be represented with a single equation, and others will be more sensibly represented by more than one equation or a diagram and one or more equations. Consider two diving boards, one 40 feet high, the other 8 feet high. Students in earlier grades learned to compare these heights in an additive sense—“This one is 32 feet higher than that one”—using addition and subtraction to solve word problems. Students in Grade 4 learn to compare these quantities multiplicatively as well: “This one is 5 times as high as that one.”

Students reason about number or shape patterns, connecting a rule for a given pattern with its sequence of numbers or shapes. In examining numerical sequences and patterns, fourth graders can explore rules of repeatedly adding the same whole number or repeatedly multiplying by the same whole number.

Fourth graders also build upon earlier understandings about multiplication and division. Students examine various patterns in factor pairs by finding factor pairs for all numbers 1 to 100, and extend the idea of decomposition to multiplication and learn to use the terms multiple, prime number, composite number.

## Calculation Method for Domains

Domains are larger groups of related standards. The Domain Grade is a calculation of all the related standards. Click on the standard name below each Domain to access the learning targets and rubrics/ proficiency scales for individual standards within the domain.

#### MAT-04.OA.01

Under Development

 MAT-04 Targeted Standards(OA) Domain: Operations and Algebraic ThinkingCluster: Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems. MAT-04.OA.01 Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison, e.g., interpret 35 = 5 x 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5. Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations.

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## Proficiency (Rubric) Scale

 Score Description Sample Activity 4.0 Student is able to - 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” Student is able to - 2.5 No major errors or emissions regarding 2.0 content and partial knowledge of the 3.0 content. 2.0 Student is able to - 1.5 In addition to 1.0 content, student has partial knowledge of the 2.0 and/or 3.0 content. 1.0 Student is able to - 0.5 Limited or no understanding of the skill id demonstrated.

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#### MAT-04.OA.02

Under Development

 MAT-04 Targeted Standards(OA) Domain: Operations and Algebraic ThinkingCluster: Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems. MAT-04.OA.02 Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative comparison, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative comparison from additive comparison.

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## Proficiency (Rubric) Scale

 Score Description Sample Activity 4.0 Student is able to - 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” Student is able to - 2.5 No major errors or emissions regarding 2.0 content and partial knowledge of the 3.0 content. 2.0 Student is able to - 1.5 In addition to 1.0 content, student has partial knowledge of the 2.0 and/or 3.0 content. 1.0 Student is able to - 0.5 Limited or no understanding of the skill id demonstrated.

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#### MAT-04.OA.03

(OA) Operations and Algebraic Thinking
Cluster: Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions.

#### MAT-04.OA.04

Under Development

 MAT-04 Targeted Standards(OA) Domain: Operations and Algebraic ThinkingCluster: Gain familiarity with factors and multiples. MAT-04.OA.04 Find all factor pairs for a whole number in the range 1-100. Recognize that a whole number is a multiple of each of its factors. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1-100 is a multiple of a given one-digit number. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1-100 is prime or composite.

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## Proficiency (Rubric) Scale

 Score Description Sample Activity 4.0 Student is able to - 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” Student is able to - 2.5 No major errors or emissions regarding 2.0 content and partial knowledge of the 3.0 content. 2.0 Student is able to - 1.5 In addition to 1.0 content, student has partial knowledge of the 2.0 and/or 3.0 content. 1.0 Student is able to - 0.5 Limited or no understanding of the skill id demonstrated.

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#### MAT-04.OA.05

Under Development

 MAT-04 Targeted Standards(OA) Domain: Operations and Algebraic ThinkingCluster: Generate and analyze patterns. MAT-04.OA.05 Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule. Identify apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit in the rule itself.

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## Proficiency (Rubric) Scale

 Score Description Sample Activity 4.0 Student is able to - 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” Student is able to - 2.5 No major errors or emissions regarding 2.0 content and partial knowledge of the 3.0 content. 2.0 Student is able to - 1.5 In addition to 1.0 content, student has partial knowledge of the 2.0 and/or 3.0 content. 1.0 Student is able to - 0.5 Limited or no understanding of the skill id demonstrated.