Friday, July 12, 2024, 6:44 PM
Site: Learnbps
Course: BPSS (SCI) Science Standards (S-SCI)
Glossary: High School Science
S

# Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

## Performance Expectations

LS2 help students formulate an answer to the question, “How and why do organisms interact with their environment, and what are the effects of these interactions?” The LS2 Disciplinary Core Idea includes four sub-ideas: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems, Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems, Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience, and Social Interactions and Group Behavior. High school students can use mathematical reasoning to demonstrate understanding of fundamental concepts of carrying capacity, factors affecting biodiversity and populations, and the cycling of matter and flow of energy among organisms in an ecosystem. These mathematical models provide support of students’ conceptual understanding of systems and their ability to develop design solutions for reducing the impact of human activities on the environment and maintaining biodiversity. Crosscutting concepts of systems and system models play a central role in students’ understanding of science and engineering practices and core ideas of ecosystems.

## Calculation Method for DCI

Disciplinary Core Ideas are larger groups of related Performance Expectations. So the Disciplinary Core Idea Grade is a calculation of all the related Performance Expectations. So click on the Performance Expectation name below each Disciplinary Core Idea to access the learning targets and proficiency scales for each Disciplinary Core Idea's related Performance Expectations.

#### SCI-HS.LS2.01

High School (SCI) Life Science Standards
[LS2] Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

##### SCI-HS.LS2.01 Use mathematical and/or computational models to support explanations of factors that affect carrying capacity of ecosystems at different scales.

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on quantitative analysis and comparison of the relationships among interdependent factors including boundaries, resources, climate, and competition. Examples of mathematical comparisons could include graphs, charts, histograms, and population changes gathered from computer simulations or historical data sets.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems -Ecosystems have carrying capacities, which are limits to the numbers of organisms and populations they can support. These limits result from such factors as the availability of living and nonliving resources and from such challenges such as predation, competition, and disease.

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## Proficiency Scale

##### 1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors
... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors

## Resources

• words
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### Websites

• Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

#### SCI-HS.LS2.02

High School (SCI) Life Science Standards
[LS2] Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

##### SCI-HS.LS2.02 Use evidence from mathematical representations to explain factors that affect population dynamics and biodiversity.

Clarification Statement: Examples of mathematical representations include finding the average, determining trends, and using graphical comparisons of multiple sets of data.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems -Ecosystems have carrying capacities, which are limits to the numbers of organisms and populations they can support. These limits result from such factors as the availability of living and nonliving resources and from such challenges such as predation, competition, and disease.
LS2.C: Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience -Interactions within an ecosystem can keep its organisms relatively constant under stable conditions. A change in the ecosystem can create a change in populations.

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## Proficiency Scale

##### 1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors
... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors

## Resources

• words
• list

### Websites

• Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

#### SCI-HS.LS2.03

High School (SCI) Life Science Standards
[LS2] Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

##### SCI-HS.LS2.03 Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for the cycling of matter and flow of energy in aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on conceptual understanding of the role of aerobic and anaerobic respiration in different environments
Disciplinary Core Ideas
LS2.B: Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems -Photosynthesis and cellular respiration provide most of the energy for life processes.

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## Proficiency Scale

##### 1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors
... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors

## Resources

• words
• list

### Websites

• Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

#### SCI-HS.LS2.04

High School (SCI) Life Science Standards
[LS2] Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

##### SCI-HS.LS2.04 Use mathematical representations to support claims for the cycling of matter and flow of energy among organisms in an ecosystem.

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using a mathematical model of stored energy in biomass to describe the transfer of energy from one trophic level to another and that matter and energy are conserved as matter cycles and energy flows through ecosystems. Emphasis is on atoms and molecules such as carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen being conserved as they move through an ecosystem.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
LS2.B: Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems -The chemical elements that make up the molecules of organisms pass through food webs (10% rule) and into and out of the atmosphere and soil, and they are combined and recombined in different ways. At each link in an ecosystem, matter and energy are conserved.

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## Proficiency Scale

##### 1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors
... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors

## Resources

• words
• list

### Websites

• Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

#### SCI-HS.LS2.05

High School (SCI) Life Science Standards
[LS2] Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

##### SCI-HS.LS2.05 Develop a model to illustrate the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of carbon among the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere.

Clarification Statement: Examples of models could include simulations and mathematical models.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
LS2.B: Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems -Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are important components of the carbon cycle, in which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, atmosphere, oceans, and geosphere through chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes

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## Proficiency Scale

##### 1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors
... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors

## Resources

• words
• list

### Websites

• Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

#### SCI-HS.LS2.06

High School (SCI) Life Science Standards
[LS2] Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

##### SCI-HS.LS2.06 Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning that the complex interactions in ecosystems maintain relatively consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable conditions but changing conditions may result in a new ecosystem.

Clarification Statement: Examples of changes in ecosystem conditions could include modest biological or physical changes, such as moderate hunting or a seasonal flood; and extreme changes, such as volcanic eruption or sea level rise, that occur at different rates
Disciplinary Core Ideas
LS2.C: Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience -Interactions within an ecosystem can keep its organisms relatively constant under stable conditions. A change in the ecosystem can create a change in populations.

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## Proficiency Scale

##### 1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors
... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors

## Resources

• words
• list

### Websites

• Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

#### SCI-HS.LS2.07

High School (SCI) Life Science Standards
[LS2] Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

##### SCI-HS.LS2.07 Design, evaluate, and refine a solution for reducing the impacts of human activities on the environment and biodiversity.

Clarification Statement: Examples of human activities can include urbanization, building dams, and dissemination of invasive speci
Disciplinary Core Ideas
LS2.C: Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience -Human activity in the environment can disrupt an ecosystem. — including habitat destruction, pollution, introduction of invasive species, overexploitation, climate change, restoration, conservation, and preservation.
LS4.D: Biodiversity and Humans -Biodiversity is increased by the formation of new species (speciation) and decreased by the loss of species (extinction)

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## Proficiency Scale

##### 1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors
... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors

## Resources

• words
• list

### Websites

• Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

#### SCI-HS.LS2.08

High School (SCI) Life Science Standards
[LS2] Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

##### SCI-HS.LS2.08 Evaluate the evidence for the role of group behavior on individual and species' chances to survive and reproduce.

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on: (1) distinguishing between group and individual behavior, (2) identifying evidence supporting the outcomes of group behavior, and (3) developing logical and reasonable arguments based on evidence. Examples of group behaviors could include flocking, schooling, herding, and cooperative behaviors such as hunting, migrating, and swarming.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
LS2.D: Social Interactions and Group Behavior -Group behavior has evolved because membership can increase the chances of survival for individuals and their genetic relatives.

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## Proficiency Scale

##### 1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors
... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors

## Resources

• words
• list

### Websites

• Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

# Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits

## Performance Expectations

LS3 help students formulate answers to the questions: “How are characteristics of one generation passed to the next? How can individuals of the same species and even siblings have different characteristics?” The LS3 Disciplinary Core Idea from the NRC Framework includes two subideas: Inheritance of Traits, and Variation of Traits. Students are able to ask questions, make and defend a claim, and use concepts of probability to explain the genetic variation in a population. Students demonstrate understanding of why individuals of the same species vary in how they look, function, and behave. Students can explain the mechanisms of genetic inheritance and describe the environmental and genetic causes of gene mutation and the alteration of gene expression. Crosscutting concepts of patterns and cause and effect are called out as organizing concepts for these core ideas.

## Calculation Method for DCI

Disciplinary Core Ideas are larger groups of related Performance Expectations. So the Disciplinary Core Idea Grade is a calculation of all the related Performance Expectations. So click on the Performance Expectation name below each Disciplinary Core Idea to access the learning targets and proficiency scales for each Disciplinary Core Idea's related Performance Expectations.