Changes of State

- Vaporization

If water gets hot enough, it starts to boil. Bubbles of water vapor form in boiling water. This happens as particles of liquid water gain enough energy to completely overcome the force of attraction between them and change to the gaseous state. The bubbles rise through the water and escape from the pot as steam.

The process in which a liquid boils and changes to a gas is called vaporization. The temperature at which a liquid boils is its boiling point. The boiling point of water is 100°C (212°F). Other types of matter may have higher or lower boiling points. For example, the boiling point of table salt is 1413°C. The boiling point of nitrogen is -196°C.