Measurement is the process of assigning a number to a magnitude of some attribute shared by some class of objects, such as length, relative to a unit. Students often initially hold undifferentiated views of measurable attributes, saying that one object is “bigger” than another whether it is longer, or greater in area, or greater in volume, and so forth. For example, two students might both claim their block building is “the biggest.” Conversations about how they are comparing—one building may be taller (greater in length) and another may have a larger base (greater in area)—help students learn to discriminate and name these measureable attributes. As they discuss these situations and compare objects using different attributes, they learn to distinguish, label, and describe several measureable attributes of a single object

As students work with data in Grades K–5, they build foundations for their study of statistics and probability in Grades 6 and beyond, and they strengthen and apply what they are learning in arithmetic. Kindergarten work with data uses counting and order relations. First- and second-graders solve addition and subtraction problems in a data context.

Students in Kindergarten classify objects into categories, initially specified by the teacher and perhaps eventually elicited from students. For example, in a science context, the teacher might ask students in the class to sort pictures of various organisms into two piles: organisms with wings and those without wings. Students can then count the number of specimens in each pile. Students can use these category counts and their understanding of cardinality to say whether there are more specimens with wings or without wings.

Calculation Method for Domains

Domains are larger groups of related standards. The Domain Grade is a calculation of all the related standards. Click on the standard name below each Domain to access the learning targets and rubrics/ proficiency scales for individual standards within the domain.