First graders continue working on using direct comparison to measure—carefully, considering all endpoints—when that is appropriate. In situations where direct comparison is not possible or convenient, they should be able to use indirect comparison and explanations that draw on transitivity. Once they can compare lengths of objects by direct comparison, they could compare several items to a single item, such as finding all the objects in the classroom the same length as (or longer than, or shorter than) their forearm. Another important set of skills and understandings is ordering a set of objects by length.
Directly comparing objects, indirectly comparing objects, and ordering objects by length are important practically and mathematically, but they are not length measurement, which involves assigning a number to a length. Students learn to lay physical units such as centimeter or inch manipulatives end-to-end and count them to measure a length.
As students work with data in Grades K–5, they build foundations for their study of statistics and probability in Grades 6 and beyond, and they strengthen and apply what they are learning in arithmetic. Kindergarten work with data uses counting and order relations. First- and second-graders solve addition and subtraction problems in a data context.
Students in Grade 1 begin to organize and represent categorical data. For example, if a collection of specimens is sorted into two piles based on which specimens have wings and which do not, students might represent the two piles of specimens on a piece of paper, by making a group of marks for each pile, as shown below (the marks could also be circles, for example). The groups of marks should be clearly labeled to reflect the attribute in question. Students in Grade 1 can ask and answer questions about categorical data based on a representation of the data.
Calculation Method for Domains
Domains are larger groups of related standards. The Domain Grade is a calculation of all the related standards. Click on the standard name below each Domain to access the learning targets and rubrics/ proficiency scales for individual standards within the domain.