[HS-PS2] Categories All categories Not categorized [HS-ESS1] [HS-ESS2] [HS-ESS3] [HS-LS1] [HS-LS2] [HS-LS3] [HS-LS4] [HS-PS1] [HS-PS2] [HS-PS3] [HS-PS4] Prioritized Expectations

# Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

## Performance Expectations

PS2 support students’ understanding of ideas related to why some objects will keep moving, why objects fall to the ground and why some materials are attracted to each other while others are not. Students should be able to answer the question, “How can one explain and predict interactions between objects and within systems of objects?” The disciplinary core idea expressed in the Framework for PS2 is broken down into the sub ideas of Forces and Motion and Types of Interactions. The performance expectations in PS2 focus on students building understanding of forces and interactions and Newton’s Second Law. Students also develop understanding that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system. Students are able to use Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects. Students are able to apply scientific and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision. The crosscutting concepts of patterns, cause and effect, systems and system models, and structure and function are called out as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas. In the PS2 performance expectations, students are expected to demonstrate proficiency in planning and conducting investigations, analyzing data and using math to support claims, applying scientific ideas to solve design problems, and communicating scientific and technical information; and to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

## Calculation Method for DCI

Disciplinary Core Ideas are larger groups of related Performance Expectations. So the Disciplinary Core Idea Grade is a calculation of all the related Performance Expectations. So click on the Performance Expectation name below each Disciplinary Core Idea to access the learning targets and proficiency scales for each Disciplinary Core Idea's related Performance Expectations.

#### SCI-HS.PS2.01

High School (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS2] Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

##### SCI-HS.PS2.01 Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration.

Clarification Statement: Physical Science and Physics: Examples of data could include tables or graphs of position or velocity as a function of time for objects subject to a net unbalanced force, such as a falling object, an object rolling down a ramp, or a moving object being pulled by a constant force in one dimension.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS2.A: Forces and Motion Newton’s second law accurately predicts changes in the motion of macroscopic objects.

## Student Learning Targets:

• I can

• I can

• I can

### Product Targets

• I can

Student "I can" statements are embedded within the proficiency scale.

## Proficiency Scale (Physical Science)

 Score Description Sample Activity 4.0 In addition to Score 3.0, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations. Themselves as an individual (myself, my family, my friends) Our society (environment, economy, infrastructure) Our culture (beliefs, norms, people) Our species (mankind, global, environment) - 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations. The student will be able to (Motion): Solve problems related to time, distance, displacement, speed and velocity.         Explain the relationship between motion and a frame of reference. Calculate problems related to time, distance, displacement, speed, and velocity Graph velocity on a distance-time graph. Calculate acceleration as the rate at which velocity changes. Graph acceleration on a velocity-time graph. Explain the effects of unbalanced forces on the motion of objects· Compare and contrast static and kinetic friction Identify ways friction may be either helpful or harmful.   The student will be able to (Work and Energy): Calculate the work done on an object and the rate at which work is done       Calculate the MA of various machines      Calculate KE and GPE Distinguish between mechanical and non-mechanical energy Explain the Law of conservation of energy      Analyze the efficiency of machines Define work and power Name and describe the six types of simple machines       Define potential energy and kinetic energy Identify examples of energy transformations - 2.5 The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and partial knowledge of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content). 2.0 The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content). The student will be able to define (Motion): Acceleration, Average speed, Constant velocity, Force, Frame of reference, Motion, Net force, Newton, Speed, Unbalanced force, Velocity The student will be able to define (Work and Energy): Compound machine, Energy, Fulcrum, Mechanical advantage, Power, Watt However, the student exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes. - 1.5 The student demonstrates partial knowledge of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and procedures (Score 3.0 content). 1.0 With help, the student demonstrates a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content). - 0.5 With help, the student demonstrates a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) but not the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content). 0.0 Even with help, the student demonstrates no understanding or skill. -

## Resources

Websites

Vocabulary

#### SCI-HS.PS2.02

High School (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS2] Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

##### SCI-HS.PS2.02 Use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system.

Clarification Statement:
Physical Science: Emphasis is on the quantitative calculations of momentum and the qualitative meaning of conservation of momentum.
Physics: Emphasis is on the quantitative calculations of momentum and the qualitative meaning of conservation of momentum. Physics includes the quantitative calculations of conservation of momentum, including inelastic & elastic collisions

Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS2.A: Forces and Motion Momentum is defined for a particular frame of reference; it is the mass times the velocity of the object. If a system interacts with objects outside itself, the total momentum of the system can change; however, any such change is balanced by changes in the momentum of objects outside the system.

## Student Learning Targets:

• I can

• I can

• I can

### Product Targets

• I can

Student "I can" statements are embedded within the proficiency scale.

## Proficiency Scale (Physical Science)

 Score Description Sample Activity 4.0 In addition to Score 3.0, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations. Themselves as an individual (myself, my family, my friends) Our society (environment, economy, infrastructure) Our culture (beliefs, norms, people) Our species (mankind, global, environment) - 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations. The student will be able to (Force): Recognize that all moving objects have momentum. Calculate force, mass and acceleration by using Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion.       Identify force pairs and be able to explain the classic “tug-o-war” Compare free-fall acceleration of an object with and without air resistance   The student will be able to (Work and Energy): Calculate the work done on an object and the rate at which work is done       Calculate the MA of various machines      Calculate KE and GPE Distinguish between mechanical and non-mechanical energy Explain the Law of conservation of energy      Analyze the efficiency of machines Define work and power Name and describe the six types of simple machines       Define potential energy and kinetic energy Identify examples of energy transformations - 2.5 The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and partial knowledge of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content). 2.0 The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content). The student will be able to define (Force):   Free fall , Friction , g, Inertia, Mass, Momentum, Newton, Projectile motion, Terminal velocity, Weight The student will be able to define (Work and Energy): Compound machine, Energy, Fulcrum, Mechanical advantage, Power, Watt However, the student exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes. - 1.5 The student demonstrates partial knowledge of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and procedures (Score 3.0 content). 1.0 With help, the student demonstrates a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content). - 0.5 With help, the student demonstrates a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) but not the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content). 0.0 Even with help, the student demonstrates no understanding or skill. -

## Resources

Websites

Vocabulary

#### SCI-HS.PS2.03

High School (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS2] Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

##### SCI-HS.PS2.03 Apply scientific principles, such as Newton's 1st & 3rd Laws, and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision.

Clarification Statement:
Physical Science: Examples of evaluation and refinement could include determining the success of the device at protecting an object from damage and modifying the design to improve it. Examples of a device could include a football helmet or a parachute.
Physics: Physics includes algebraic manipulations.

Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS2.A: Forces and Motion Momentum is conserved within the system and the surroundings.
ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting an Engineering Problem Criteria and constraints also include satisfying any requirements set by society, and they should be quantified to the extent possible and stated in such a way that one can tell if a given design meets them. ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution Criteria may need to be broken down into simpler ones that can be approached systematically.

• I can

• I can

• I can

• I can

## Proficiency Scale

##### 1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors
... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors

## Resources

• words
• list

### Websites

• Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

#### SCI-HS.PS2.04

High School (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS2] Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

##### SCI-HS.PS2.04 Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects.

Clarification Statement: Physics: Emphasis is on both quantitative and conceptual descriptions of gravitational and electric fields for systems with two objects
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS2.B: Types of Interactions Newton’s law of universal gravitation and Coulomb’s law provide the mathematical models to describe and predict the effects of gravitational and electrostatic forces between distant objects. Forces at a distance are explained by fields (gravitational, electric, and magnetic) permeating space that can transfer energy through space. Magnets or electric currents cause magnetic fields; electric charges or changing magnetic fields cause electric fields.

• I can

• I can

• I can

• I can

## Proficiency Scale

##### 1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors
... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors

## Resources

• words
• list

### Websites

• Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

#### SCI-HS.PS2.05

High School (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS2] Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

##### SCI-HS.PS2.05 Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that an electric current can produce a magnetic field and that a changing magnetic field can produce an electric current.

Clarification Statement: Physics: Evidence of changes within a circuit can be represented numerically, graphically, or algebraically using Ohm's law.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS2.B: Types of Interactions Using Newton’s law of universal gravitation and Coulomb’s law to describe and predict the effects of gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects. Forces at a distance are explained by fields that can transfer energy through space. Magnets or electric currents cause magnetic fields; electric charges or changing magnetic fields cause electric fields.
PS3.A: Definitions of Energy “Electrical energy” may mean energy stored in a battery or energy transmitted by electric currents. (secondary)

## Student Learning Targets:

• I can

• I can

• I can

### Product Targets

• I can

Student " I can" Statements are embedded within the proficiency scale.

## Proficiency Scale (Physical Science)

 Score Description Sample Activity 4.0 In addition to Score 3.0, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations. Themselves as an individual (myself, my family, my friends) Our society (environment, economy, infrastructure) Our culture (beliefs, norms, people) Our species   (mankind, global, environment) - 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations. The student will be able to (Electricity and Magnetism): Distinguish between conductors, semiconductors, and insulators.        Calculate voltage, current, and resistance.     Distinguish between series and parallel circuits. Explain how fuses and circuit breakers are used to prevent circuit overloads. Use diagrams to represent circuits.       Recognize that “like” magnetic poles repel and “unlike” poles attract. Explain how compasses work.   Indicate which pairs of charge will repel and attract. Describe the magnetic field around permanent magnets. Describe how batteries are sources of voltage. Define resistance. Describe how magnetism is produced by an electric current. - 2.5 The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and partial knowledge of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content). 2.0 The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content). The student will be able to define: cell, circuit breaker, conductor, current, electric charge, electric circuit, electric field, electric force, fuse, insulator, parallel circuit, potential difference, resistance, series circuit However, the student exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes. - 1.5 The student demonstrates partial knowledge of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and procedures (Score 3.0 content). 1.0 With help, the student demonstrates a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content). - 0.5 With help, the student demonstrates a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) but not the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content). 0.0 Even with help, the student demonstrates no understanding or skill. -

## Resources

Websites

Vocabulary

#### SCI-HS.PS2.06

High School (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS2] Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

##### SCI-HS.PS2.06 Communicate scientific and technical information about why the molecular-level structure is important in the functioning of designed materials.

Clarification Statement: Chemistry: Emphasis is on the attractive and repulsive forces that determine the functioning of the material. Examples could include why electrically conductive materials are often made of metal, flexible but durable materials are made up of long chained molecules, and pharmaceuticals are designed to interact with specific receptors
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS2.B: Types of Interactions Attraction and repulsion between electric charges at the atomic scale explain the structure, properties, and transformations of matter, as well as the contact forces between material objects.

## Student Learning Targets:

• I can

• I can

• I can

### Product Targets

• I can

Student "I can" statements are embedded within the proficiency scale.

## Proficiency Scale for Bonding and Intermolecular Forces (Chemistry)

 Score Description Student Targets and Activities 4.0 In addition to Score 3.0, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations. 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations. HS-PS1-1-Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms (for example, use information on the periodic table to predict relative properties-such as the reactivity of metals, types of bonds formed, number of bonds formed, and reaction with oxygen-of main group elements). HS-PS1-3- Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the bulk scale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles (for example, figure out the strength of electrical forces between ions, atoms, molecules, or networked materials-such as graphite-by investigating the structure and characteristics of different substances at the bulk scale, including melting point, boiling point, vapor pressure, and surface tension.  A suggestion would be to have students construct and revise an explanation for the behaviors of solutes and solvents of differing polarity and the practical applications of various materials in real-world applications. ). HS-PS2-6-Communicate scientific and technical information about why the molecular-level structure is important in the functioning of designed materials (for example, use teacher-provided molecular-level structures of specific designed materials-such as electrically conductive metals, flexible but durable materials, and pharmaceuticals designed to interact with specific receptors-to explain how attractive and repulsive forces at the molecular level determine function). Determine the strength of a chemical bond between to ions. Determine the characteristics of the electrons involved in a chemical bond based on electronegativity values. Identify whether a bond is covalent or ionic based solely on electronegativity data for the respective ions. Differentiate between values of a Van der Waals radius and a covalent radius. Compare and contrast ionic radii (both cation and anion) to a stable atom. Determine the covalent radius when provided with internuclear distance information. 2.5 The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and partial knowledge of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content). 2.0 The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).The student will:HS-PS1-1 Recognize and recall specific vocabulary (for example, atom, atomic mass, atomic nucleus, atomic number, bond, electron, element, element stability, elements of matter, main group element, model, neutron, outermost energy level, pattern, periodic table, predict, property, proton, reaction, reactivity, relative, relative mass, weight of subatomic particles). Use the periodic table to gather information about main group elements. HS-PS1-3 Recognize and recall specific vocabulary (for example, atom, atomic energy, boiling point, bulk scale, characteristic, electrical force, elementary particle, ion, melting point, molecule, networked material, particle, strength, structure, substance, surface tension, vapor pressure). Model the structures of various substances. Describe the relationship between electrical forces and particles. HS-PS2-6 Recognize or recall specific vocabulary (for example, attractive, designed material, durable, electrically conductive, electron configuration, electron sharing, electron transfer, flexible, force, formation of polymers, function, ionic motion, isotope, molecular arrangement, molecular level, molecular motion, pharmaceutical, receptor, repulsive, structure, synthetic polymer. Describe the structure of different substances at the molecular level. Describe the relationship between attractive and repulsive forces at the molecular level. Define and identify electronegativity trends from the periodic table. Identify physical traits of compounds formed by covalent and ionic bonds. Identify the bond axis, bond angle, and bond length of a covalent molecule. 1.5 The student demonstrates partial knowledge of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and procedures (Score 3.0 content). 1.0 With help, the student demonstrates a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content). - 0.5 With help, the student demonstrates a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) but not the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).

Websites

Vocabulary

## Proficiency Scale for Structure & Properties of Matter (Chemistry)

 Score Description Student Targets and Activities 4.0 In addition to Score 3.0, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations. Student can perform all expectations at “Proficient” (3.0) level without use of a list of selected polyatomic ions (“from memory”). 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations. The student: HS-PS1-1- Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms (for example, use information on the periodic table to predict relative properties-such as the reactivity of metals, types of bonds formed, number of bonds formed, and reaction with oxygen-of main group elements).   HS-PS1-3- Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the bulk scale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles (for example, figure out the strength of electrical forces between ions, atoms, molecules, or networked materials-such as graphite-by investigating the structure and characteristics of different substances at the bulk scale, including melting point, boiling point, vapor pressure, and surface tension). Identify and explain physical properties (e.g., density, melting point, boiling point, conductivity, malleability) and chemical properties (e.g., the ability to form new substances).   HS-PS2-6.  Communicate scientific and technical information about why the molecular-level structure is important in the functioning of designed materials (for example, use teacher-provided molecular-level structures of specific designed materials-such as electrically conductive metals, flexible but durable materials, and pharmaceuticals designed to interact with specific receptors-to explain how attractive and repulsive forces at the molecular level determine function). Explains the similarities and differences between the 3 states of matter, with examples Discusses the differences between chemical and physical changes, with examples Discusses the term “phase” in terms of homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures Separates various mixtures using physical properties Discusses multiple ways a mixture may be separated using physical properties Communicates a knowledge of the difference between a chemical formula and a chemical reaction by providing examples of each Differentiates between qualitative and quantitative data through the use of examples 2.5 The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and partial knowledge of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content). 2.0 The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content). HS-PS1-1. The student will: Recognize and recall specific vocabulary (for example, atom, atomic mass, atomic nucleus, atomic number, bond, electron, element, element stability, elements of matter, main group element, model, neutron, outermost energy level, pattern, periodic table, predict, property, proton, reaction, reactivity, relative, relative mass, weight of subatomic particles).o Use the periodic table to gather information about main group elements.  HS-PS1-3. The student will: Recognize and recall specific vocabulary (for example, atom, atomic energy, boiling point, bulk scale, characteristic, electrical force, elementary particle, ion, melting point, molecule, networked material, particle, strength, structure, substance, surface tension, vapor pressure). Model the structures of various substances. Describe the relationship between electrical forces and particles.  HS-PS2-6. The student will: Recognize or recall specific vocabulary (for example, attractive, designed material, durable, electrically conductive, electron configuration, electron sharing, electron transfer, flexible, force, formation of polymers, function, ionic motion, isotope, molecular arrangement, molecular level, molecular motion, pharmaceutical, receptor, repulsive, structure, synthetic polymer. Describe the structure of different substances at the molecular level. Describe the relationship between attractive and repulsive forces at the molecular level. Identifies properties of the 3 states of matter Recognizes examples of chemical and physical changes Identifies a homogeneous and heterogeneous mixture when given examples Identifies physical properties when given examples Recognizes ways that solutions may be separated using physical properties Recognizes examples of chemical formulas and chemical reactions Recognizes the differences between qualitative and quantitative data when given examples 1.5 The student demonstrates partial knowledge of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and procedures (Score 3.0 content). 1.0 With help, the student demonstrates a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content). - 0.5 With help, the student demonstrates a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) but not the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).

Websites

Vocabulary

## Proficiency Scale for Atomic Theory (Chemistry)

 Score Description Student Targets and Activities 4.0 In addition to Score 3.0, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations. Student can perform all expectations at “Proficient” (3.0) level without use of a list of selected polyatomic ions (“from memory”). 3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success. 3.0 “The Standard.” The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations. HS-PS1-1. Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms. [Clarification Statement: Examples of properties that could be predicted from patterns could include reactivity of metals, types of bonds formed, numbers of bonds formed, and reactions with oxygen.]  (for example, use information on the periodic table to predict relative properties-such as the reactivity of metals, types of bonds formed, number of bonds formed, and reaction with oxygen-of main group elements).  HS-PS1-3. Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the bulk scale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on understanding the strengths of forces between particles, not on naming specific intermolecular forces (such as dipole-dipole). Examples of particles could include ions, atoms, molecules, and networked materials.]  HS-PS2-6.  Communicate scientific and technical information about why the molecular-level structure is important in the functioning of designed materials (for example, use teacher-provided molecular-level structures of specific designed materials-such as electrically conductive metals, flexible but durable materials, and pharmaceuticals designed to interact with specific receptors-to explain how attractive and repulsive forces at the molecular level determine function). 2.5 The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and partial knowledge of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content). 2.0 The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content). HS-PS1-1 The student will: Recognize and recall specific vocabulary (for example, atom, atomic mass, atomic nucleus, atomic number, bond, electron, element, element stability, elements of matter, main group element, model, neutron, outermost energy level, pattern, periodic table, predict, property, proton, reaction, reactivity, relative, relative mass, mass of subatomic particles). Use the periodic table to gather information about main group elements. HS-PS1-3. The student will: Recognize and recall specific vocabulary (for example, atom, atomic energy, boiling point, bulk scale, characteristic, electrical force, elementary particle, ion, melting point, molecule, networked material, particle, strength, structure, substance, surface tension, vapor pressure). Model the structures of various substances. Describe the relationship between electrical forces and particles. 1.5 The student demonstrates partial knowledge of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and procedures (Score 3.0 content). 1.0 With help, the student demonstrates a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content). - 0.5 With help, the student demonstrates a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) but not the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).

Websites

Vocabulary