High School Science


[HS-PS3]

SCI-HS.PS3

BPSS-SCI logo DCI Physical Science PS3

Energy

Performance Expectations

PS3 help students formulate an answer to the question, “How is energy transferred and conserved?” The Core Idea expressed in the Framework for PS3 is broken down into four sub-core ideas: Definitions of Energy, Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer, the Relationship between Energy and Forces, and Energy in Chemical Process and Everyday Life. Energy is understood as quantitative property of a system that depends on the motion and interactions of matter and radiation within that system, and the total change of energy in any system is always equal to the total energy transferred into or out of the system. Students develop an understanding that energy at both the macroscopic and the atomic scale can be accounted for as either motions of particles or energy associated with the configuration (relative positions) of particles. In some cases, the energy associated with the configuration of particles can be thought of as stored in fields. Students also demonstrate their understanding of engineering principles when they design, build, and refine devices associated with the conversion of energy. The crosscutting concepts of cause and effect; systems and system models; energy and matter; and the influence of science, engineering, and technology on society and the natural world are further developed in the performance expectations associated with PS3. In these performance expectations, students are expected to demonstrate proficiency in developing and using models, planning and carry out investigations, using computational thinking and designing solutions; and to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

Calculation Method for DCI

Disciplinary Core Ideas are larger groups of related Performance Expectations. So the Disciplinary Core Idea Grade is a calculation of all the related Performance Expectations. So click on the Performance Expectation name below each Disciplinary Core Idea to access the learning targets and proficiency scales for each Disciplinary Core Idea's related Performance Expectations.


SCI-HS.PS3.01

Physical Science LogoHigh School (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS3] Energy

SCI-HS.PS3.01 Create a mathematical model to calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system when the change in energy of the other component(s) and energy flows in and out of the system are known.

Clarification Statement:
Physical Science: Emphasis is on basic algebraic expressions or computations; to systems of two or three components; and to thermal energy, kinetic energy, and potential energy.
Chemistry: Emphasis is on explaining the meaning of mathematical expressions used in the model. Focus is on basic algebraic expression or computations, systems of two or three components, and thermal energy.
Physics: Emphasis is on explaining the meaning of mathematical expressions used in the model. Focus is on basic algebraic expression or computations; systems of two or three components; and thermal energy, kinetic energy, and/or the energies in gravitational, magnetic, or electric fields

Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS3.A: Definitions of Energy A system’s total energy is conserved within its system and surroundings.
PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be transferred. Mathematical expressions, including potential and kinetic energy allow the concept of conservation of energy to be used to describe a system. The availability of energy limits what can occur in any system.


Student Learning Targets:

Knowledge Targets

  • I can

Reasoning Targets

  • I can

Skills (Performance) Targets

  • I can

Product Targets

  • I can

Proficiency Scale

The Student can ...
1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
  • descriptors
2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
  • descriptors
3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
  • descriptors
4 Advanced
... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
  • descriptors

Resources

Vocabulary

  • words
  • list

Websites

  • Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

SCI-HS.PS3.02

Physical Science LogoHigh School (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS3] Energy

SCI-HS.PS3.02 Develop and use models to illustrate that energy is associated with motion and relative position of particles (objects).

Clarification Statement:
Physical Science: Emphasis is on energy associated with the different states of matter.
Chemistry: Emphasis on phenomena relating to the Kinetic Molecular Theory. Possible models include diagrams, drawings, descriptions, and computer simulations.
Physics: Emphasis on phenomena relating to the Kinetic Molecular Theory. Possible models include diagrams, drawings, descriptions, and computer simulations.

Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS3.A: Definitions of Energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be transferred.
Energy manifests itself in multiple ways, such as in motion, sound, light, and thermal energy. Energy can be modeled as a combination of energy associated with the motion and relative position of particles. In some cases the relative position energy can be thought of as stored in fields (which mediate interactions between particles). This last concept includes radiation, a phenomenon in which energy stored in fields moves across space.


Student Learning Targets:

Knowledge Targets

  • I can

Reasoning Targets

  • I can

Skills (Performance) Targets

  • I can

Product Targets

  • I can

Student learning targets are embedded in the proficiency scales.

Proficiency Scale for Quantum Theory (Chemistry)

Score   Description I can statements
4.0 In addition to Score 3.0, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations. -
  3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success.
3.0

“The Standard.” The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.

The student:     

 HS-PS3-2-Develop and use models to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as a combination of energy associated with the motions of particles (objects) and energy associated with the relative position of particles (objects) (for example, create a diagram, drawing, or computer simulation that shows that energy at the macroscopic scale-such as the conversion of kinetic energy to thermal energy or the energy stored due to the position of an object above the Earth or between two electrically charged plates-can be accounted for as either the motion of particles or energy stored in fields).  **See DCI details for PS3-A following this rubric for microscopic scale clarification.) 

HS-PS4-3-Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model, and that for some situations one model is more useful than the other (for example, determine whether experimental evidence supports the claim that electromagnetic radiation can be described by either a wave model or a particle model, as well as the claim that for different phenomena-such as resonance, interference, diffraction, and photoelectric effect-one model is more useful than the other). 

HS-PS4-4-Evaluate the validity and reliability of claims in published materials of the effects that different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter.

-
  2.5 The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and partial knowledge of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
2.

The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).

HS-PS3-2

The student will:
  • Recognize or recall specific vocabulary (for example, conversion, electrically charged, energy, field, kinetic energy, macroscopic scale, molecular energy, motion, particle, position, relative, thermal energy; ground state, excited state).
  • Describe how energy results from the motion of particles (objects).
  • Describe how energy is stored in fields.

HS-PS4-3

The student will:
  • Recognize or recall specific vocabulary (for example, diffraction, electromagnetic, electromagnetic field, electromagnetic radiation, electromagnetic wave, experimental evidence, interference, model, particle model, phenomenon, photoelectric effect, resonance, wave model).
  • Describe the wave model of electromagnetic radiation.
  • Describe the particle model of electromagnetic radiation.
  • Summarize the claims and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model.

HS-PS4-4

The student will:
  • Recognize or recall specific vocabulary (for example, absorb, effect, electromagnetic radiation, energy, frequency, infrared radiation, light, matter, photon, radiation).
  • Summarize claims about the effects that different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter.
-
  1.5 The student demonstrates partial knowledge of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and procedures (Score 3.0 content).
1.0 With help, the student demonstrates a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content). -
  0.5 With help, the student demonstrates a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) but not the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).

Resources

Websites

Vocabulary


SCI-HS.PS3.03

Physical Science LogoHigh School (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS3] Energy

SCI-HS.PS3.03 Design, build, and refine a device that works within given constraints to convert one form of energy into another form of energy.

Clarification Statement:
Physical Science: Emphasis is on both qualitative and quantitative evaluations of devices. Examples of devices could include Rube Goldberg devices, wind turbines, solar cells, solar ovens, generators, and types of circuits.
Chemistry: Emphasis is on both qualitative and quantitative evaluations of devices. Constraints could include use of renewable energy forms and efficiency. Focus of quantitative evaluations is limited to total output for a given input. Examples of devices in chemistry could include hot/cold packs and batteries.
Physics: Emphasis is on both qualitative and quantitative evaluations of devices. Constraints could include use of renewable energy forms and efficiency. Focus of quantitative evaluations is limited to total output for a given input. Examples of devices in physics could include Rube Goldberg devices, wind turbines, solar cells, solar ovens, and electric motors.

Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS3.A: Definitions of Energy Energy manifests itself in multiple ways, such as in motion, sound, light, and thermal energy.
PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes Although energy cannot be destroyed, it can be converted to less useful forms.
ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting an Engineering Problem Criteria and constraints also include satisfying any requirements set by society.


Student Learning Targets:

Knowledge Targets

  • I can

Reasoning Targets

  • I can

Skills (Performance) Targets

  • I can

Product Targets

  • I can

Proficiency Scale

The Student can ...
1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
  • descriptors
2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
  • descriptors
3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
  • descriptors
4 Advanced
... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
  • descriptors

Resources

Vocabulary

  • words
  • list

Websites

  • Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

SCI-HS.PS3.04

Physical Science LogoHigh School (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS3] Energy

SCI-HS.PS3.04 Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that the transfer of thermal energy when two components of different temperature are combined within a closed system results in a more uniform energy distribution among the components in the system (second law of thermodynamics).

Clarification Statement:
Physical Science, Chemistry, and Physics: Emphasis is on analyzing data from student investigations and using mathematical thinking to describe the energy changes both quantitatively and conceptually. Examples of investigations could include mixing liquids at different initial temperatures or adding objects at different temperatures to water

Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer Energy manifests itself in multiple ways, such as in motion, sound, light, and thermal energy.
PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes Although energy cannot be destroyed, it can be converted to less useful forms — for example, to thermal energy in the surrounding environment.
ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting an Engineering Problem Criteria and constraints also include satisfying any requirements set by society.


Student Learning Targets:

Knowledge Targets

  • I can

Reasoning Targets

  • I can

Skills (Performance) Targets

  • I can

Product Targets

  • I can

Student "I can" statements are embedded within the proficiency scale.

Proficiency Scale (Physical Science)

Score   Description Sample Activity
4.0

In addition to Score 3.0, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.

  • Themselves as an individual (myself, my family, my friends)
  • Our society (environment, economy, infrastructure)
  • Our culture (beliefs, norms, people)
  • Our species (mankind, global, environment)
-
  3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success.
3.0

“The Standard.” The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.

The student will be able to (Heat and Energy):
  • investigate and demonstrate how energy is transferred by conduction, convection, and radiation.
  • distinguish between conductors and insulators
  • solve problems involving specific heat
  • investigate heat transfer including mass of components, specific heat, initial temperature and final temperature.
  • analyze heat transfer data and graphs.
  • Recognize the difference between temperature and heat
  • recognizes heat as a form of energy
  • define conductors and insulators in relationship to heat energy
-
  2.5 The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and partial knowledge of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
2.0

The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).

The student will be able to define:  
  • absolute zero, convection, heat, heat engine, radiation, refrigerant, specific heat, temperature, thermal conduction
 However, the student exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes.
 
-
  1.5 The student demonstrates partial knowledge of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and procedures (Score 3.0 content).
1.0 With help, the student demonstrates a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content). -
  0.5 With help, the student demonstrates a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) but not the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
0.0 Even with help, the student demonstrates no understanding or skill. -

Resources

Websites

Vocabulary


SCI-HS.PS3.05

Physical Science LogoHigh School (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS3] Energy

SCI-HS.PS3.05 Develop and use a model of two objects interacting through electric or magnetic fields to illustrate the forces between objects and the changes in energy of the objects due to the interaction.

Clarification Statement:
Physics: Examples of models could include drawings, diagrams, and texts, such as drawings of what happens when two charges of opposite polarity are near each other. Limited to systems containing two objects.

Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS3.C: Relationship Between Energy and Forces When two objects interacting through a field change relative position, the energy stored in the field is changed.


Student Learning Targets:

Knowledge Targets

  • I can

Reasoning Targets

  • I can

Skills (Performance) Targets

  • I can

Product Targets

  • I can

Proficiency Scale

The Student can ...
1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
  • descriptors
2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
  • descriptors
3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
  • descriptors
4 Advanced
... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
  • descriptors

Resources

Vocabulary

  • words
  • list

Websites

  • Title of website with a URL to open in a new window