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SCI-HS.PS3.04

Physical Science LogoHigh School (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS3] Energy

SCI-HS.PS3.04 Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that the transfer of thermal energy when two components of different temperature are combined within a closed system results in a more uniform energy distribution among the components in the system (second law of thermodynamics).

Clarification Statement:
Physical Science, Chemistry, and Physics: Emphasis is on analyzing data from student investigations and using mathematical thinking to describe the energy changes both quantitatively and conceptually. Examples of investigations could include mixing liquids at different initial temperatures or adding objects at different temperatures to water

Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer Energy manifests itself in multiple ways, such as in motion, sound, light, and thermal energy.
PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes Although energy cannot be destroyed, it can be converted to less useful forms — for example, to thermal energy in the surrounding environment.
ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting an Engineering Problem Criteria and constraints also include satisfying any requirements set by society.


Student Learning Targets:

Knowledge Targets

  • I can

Reasoning Targets

  • I can

Skills (Performance) Targets

  • I can

Product Targets

  • I can

Student "I can" statements are embedded within the proficiency scale.

Proficiency Scale (Physical Science)

Score   Description Sample Activity
4.0

In addition to Score 3.0, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.

  • Themselves as an individual (myself, my family, my friends)
  • Our society (environment, economy, infrastructure)
  • Our culture (beliefs, norms, people)
  • Our species (mankind, global, environment)
-
  3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success.
3.0

“The Standard.” The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.

The student will be able to (Heat and Energy):
  • investigate and demonstrate how energy is transferred by conduction, convection, and radiation.
  • distinguish between conductors and insulators
  • solve problems involving specific heat
  • investigate heat transfer including mass of components, specific heat, initial temperature and final temperature.
  • analyze heat transfer data and graphs.
  • Recognize the difference between temperature and heat
  • recognizes heat as a form of energy
  • define conductors and insulators in relationship to heat energy
-
  2.5 The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and partial knowledge of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
2.0

The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).

The student will be able to define:  
  • absolute zero, convection, heat, heat engine, radiation, refrigerant, specific heat, temperature, thermal conduction
 However, the student exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes.
 
-
  1.5 The student demonstrates partial knowledge of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and procedures (Score 3.0 content).
1.0 With help, the student demonstrates a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content). -
  0.5 With help, the student demonstrates a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) but not the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
0.0 Even with help, the student demonstrates no understanding or skill. -

Resources

Websites

Vocabulary


SCI-HS.PS3.05

Physical Science LogoHigh School (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS3] Energy

SCI-HS.PS3.05 Develop and use a model of two objects interacting through electric or magnetic fields to illustrate the forces between objects and the changes in energy of the objects due to the interaction.

Clarification Statement:
Physics: Examples of models could include drawings, diagrams, and texts, such as drawings of what happens when two charges of opposite polarity are near each other. Limited to systems containing two objects.

Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS3.C: Relationship Between Energy and Forces When two objects interacting through a field change relative position, the energy stored in the field is changed.


Student Learning Targets:

Knowledge Targets

  • I can

Reasoning Targets

  • I can

Skills (Performance) Targets

  • I can

Product Targets

  • I can

Proficiency Scale

The Student can ...
1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
  • descriptors
2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
  • descriptors
3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
  • descriptors
4 Advanced
... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
  • descriptors

Resources

Vocabulary

  • words
  • list

Websites

  • Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

SCI-HS.PS4

BPSS-SCI logo DCI Physical Science PS4

Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer

Performance Expectations

PS4 are critical to understand how many new technologies work. As such, this core idea helps students answer the question, “How are waves used to transfer energy and send and store information?” The disciplinary core idea in PS4 is broken down into Wave Properties, Electromagnetic Radiation, and Information Technologies and Instrumentation. Students are able to apply understanding of how wave properties and the interactions of electromagnetic radiation with matter can transfer information across long distances, store information, and investigate nature on many scales. Models of electromagnetic radiation as either a wave of changing electric and magnetic fields or as particles are developed and used. Students understand that combining waves of different frequencies can make a wide variety of patterns and thereby encode and transmit information. Students also demonstrate their understanding of engineering ideas by presenting information about how technological devices use the principles of wave behavior and wave interactions with matter to transmit and capture information and energy. The crosscutting concepts of cause and effect; systems and system models; stability and change; interdependence of science, engineering, and technology; and the influence of engineering, technology, and science on society and the natural world are highlighted as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas. In the PS3 performance expectations, students are expected to demonstrate proficiency in asking questions, using mathematical thinking, engaging in argument from evidence and obtaining, evaluating and communicating information; and to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

Calculation Method for DCI

Disciplinary Core Ideas are larger groups of related Performance Expectations. So the Disciplinary Core Idea Grade is a calculation of all the related Performance Expectations. So click on the Performance Expectation name below each Disciplinary Core Idea to access the learning targets and proficiency scales for each Disciplinary Core Idea's related Performance Expectations.


SCI-HS.PS4.01

Physical Science LogoHigh School (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS4] Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfers

SCI-HS.PS4.01 Use mathematical representations to support a claim regarding relationships among the frequency, wavelength, and speed of waves traveling in various media.

Clarification Statement: Physical Science/Physics: Examples of data could include electromagnetic radiation traveling in a vacuum and glass, sound waves traveling through air and water, and seismic waves traveling through the Earth.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS4.A: Wave Properties The wavelength and frequency of a wave are related to one another by the speed of travel of the wave, which depends on the type of wave and the medium through which it is passing.


Student Learning Targets:

Knowledge Targets

  • I can

Reasoning Targets

  • I can

Skills (Performance) Targets

  • I can

Product Targets

  • I can

Student "I can" statements are embedded within the proficiency scale.

Proficiency Scale

Score   Description Sample Activity
4.0

In addition to Score 3.0, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.

  • Themselves as an individual (myself, my family, my friends)
  • Our society (environment, economy, infrastructure)
  • Our culture (beliefs, norms, people)
  • Our species (mankind, global, environment)
-
  3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success.
3.0

“The Standard.” The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.

The student will be able to (Light and Sound):
  • Compare and contrast transverse waves (light) and longitudinal waves (sound).
  • Compare and contrast mechanical (sound) and electromagnetic waves (light).
  • Solve problems involving wave speed, frequency, and wavelength.
  • Distinguish between constructive interference and destructive interference
  • Demonstrate how light is refracted as it passes between mediums of different densities.
  • Explain how sonar and ultrasound imaging work.
  • Relate loudness and pitch to properties of sound.   
  • Relate the energy of light to the frequency of electromagnetic waves.        
  • Explain how electromagnetic waves are used in communication, medicine and other areas.
  • Explain the law of reflection.
  • Explain the relationship between particle vibration and wave motion.

 

The student will be able to (Waves):

  • Explain the relationship between particle vibration and wave motion.        
  • Compare and contrast transverse waves and longitudinal waves.        
  • Compare and contrast mechanical waves and electromagnetic waves.
  • Solve problems involving wave speed, frequency, and wavelength.
  • Distinguish between constructive interference and destructive interference
  • Show how light refracts as it passes between mediums of different densities.
  • Recognize that waves transfer energy         
  • Identify factors that can affect the speed of a wave.
  • Recognize the dual nature of light. (photon)
  • Describe the different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.
  • Describe the Doppler effect. 
-
  2.5 The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and partial knowledge of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
2.0

The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).

The student will be able to define(Light and Sound):
  • infrasound, lens, pitch, photon, prism, sonar, radar, real image, resonance, virtual image, ultrasound, virtual image
The student will be able to define (Waves):
  • amplitude, constructive interference, crest, destructive interference, electromagnetic wave, frequency, longitudinal wave, medium, reflection, refraction, transverse wave, trough, wave
However, the student exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes.
 
-
  1.5 The student demonstrates partial knowledge of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and procedures (Score 3.0 content).
1.0 With help, the student demonstrates a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content). -
  0.5 With help, the student demonstrates a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) but not the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
0.0 Even with help, the student demonstrates no understanding or skill. -

Resources

Websites

Vocabulary


SCI-HS.PS4.02

Physical Science LogoHigh School (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS4] Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfers

SCI-HS.PS4.02 Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model, and that for some situations one model is more useful than the other.

Clarification Statement: Physics: Emphasis is on the idea that photons associated with different frequencies of light have different energies, and the damage to living tissue from electromagnetic radiation depends on the energy of the radiation. Examples of published materials could include trade books, magazines, web resources, videos, and other passages that may reflect bias. Quantum theory does not need to be included.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS4.A: Wave Properties Waves can add or cancel one another as they cross, depending on their relative phase (i.e., relative position of peaks and troughs of the waves), but they emerge unaffected by each other. (Boundary: The discussion at this grade level is qualitative only.)
PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic radiation (e.g., radio, microwaves, light) can be modeled as a wave of changing electric and magnetic fields or as particles called photons. The wave model is useful for explaining many features of electromagnetic radiation, and the particle model explains other features.


Student Learning Targets:

Knowledge Targets

  • I can

Reasoning Targets

  • I can

Skills (Performance) Targets

  • I can

Product Targets

  • I can

Proficiency Scale

The Student can ...
1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
  • descriptors
2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
  • descriptors
3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
  • descriptors
4 Advanced
... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
  • descriptors

Resources

Vocabulary

  • words
  • list

Websites

  • Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

SCI-HS.PS4.03

Physical Science LogoHigh School (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS4] Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfers

SCI-HS.PS4.03 Evaluate the validity and reliability of claims in published materials of the effects that different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter.

Clarification Statement: Physics: Emphasis is on the idea that photons associated with different frequencies of light have different energies, and the damage to living tissue from electromagnetic radiation depends on the energy of the radiation. Examples of published materials could include trade books, magazines, web resources, videos, and other passages that may reflect bias. Focus is on qualitative descriptions.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation When light or longer wavelength electromagnetic radiation is absorbed in matter, it is generally converted into thermal energy (heat). Shorter wavelength electromagnetic radiation (ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) can ionize atoms and cause damage to living cells.


Student Learning Targets:

Knowledge Targets

  • I can

Reasoning Targets

  • I can

Skills (Performance) Targets

  • I can

Product Targets

  • I can

Student learning targets are embedded in the proficiency scales.

Proficiency Scale for Quantum Theory (Chemistry)

Score   Description I can statements
4.0 In addition to Score 3.0, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations. -
  3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success.
3.0

“The Standard.” The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.

The student:     

 HS-PS3-2-Develop and use models to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as a combination of energy associated with the motions of particles (objects) and energy associated with the relative position of particles (objects) (for example, create a diagram, drawing, or computer simulation that shows that energy at the macroscopic scale-such as the conversion of kinetic energy to thermal energy or the energy stored due to the position of an object above the Earth or between two electrically charged plates-can be accounted for as either the motion of particles or energy stored in fields).  **See DCI details for PS3-A following this rubric for microscopic scale clarification.) 

HS-PS4-3-Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model, and that for some situations one model is more useful than the other (for example, determine whether experimental evidence supports the claim that electromagnetic radiation can be described by either a wave model or a particle model, as well as the claim that for different phenomena-such as resonance, interference, diffraction, and photoelectric effect-one model is more useful than the other). 

HS-PS4-4-Evaluate the validity and reliability of claims in published materials of the effects that different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter.

-
  2.5 The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and partial knowledge of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
2.

The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).

HS-PS3-2

The student will:
  • Recognize or recall specific vocabulary (for example, conversion, electrically charged, energy, field, kinetic energy, macroscopic scale, molecular energy, motion, particle, position, relative, thermal energy; ground state, excited state).
  • Describe how energy results from the motion of particles (objects).
  • Describe how energy is stored in fields.

HS-PS4-3

The student will:
  • Recognize or recall specific vocabulary (for example, diffraction, electromagnetic, electromagnetic field, electromagnetic radiation, electromagnetic wave, experimental evidence, interference, model, particle model, phenomenon, photoelectric effect, resonance, wave model).
  • Describe the wave model of electromagnetic radiation.
  • Describe the particle model of electromagnetic radiation.
  • Summarize the claims and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model.

HS-PS4-4

The student will:
  • Recognize or recall specific vocabulary (for example, absorb, effect, electromagnetic radiation, energy, frequency, infrared radiation, light, matter, photon, radiation).
  • Summarize claims about the effects that different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter.
-
  1.5 The student demonstrates partial knowledge of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and procedures (Score 3.0 content).
1.0 With help, the student demonstrates a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content). -
  0.5 With help, the student demonstrates a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) but not the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).

Resources

Websites

Vocabulary


SCI-HS.PS4.04

Physical Science LogoHigh School (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS4] Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfers

SCI-HS.PS4.04 Communicate technical information about how some technological devices use the principles of wave behavior and wave interactions with matter to transmit and capture information and energy.

Clarification Statement: Physics: Examples could include solar cells capturing light and converting it to electricity; medical imaging; and communications technology. Focus in on qualitative information and does not include band theory
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes Solar cells capture the sun’s energy and produce electrical energy.
PS4.A: Wave Properties Information can be digitized and then stored in computer memory and sent over long distances as wave pulses.
PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation Photoelectric materials emit electrons when they absorb light of a high-enough frequency.
PS4.C: Information Technologies and Instrumentation Technologies based on waves are part of everyday experiences and are essential tools for producing, transmitting, and capturing signals and for storing and interpreting the information.


Student Learning Targets:

Knowledge Targets

  • I can

Reasoning Targets

  • I can

Skills (Performance) Targets

  • I can

Product Targets

  • I can

Student learning targets are embedded in the proficiency scales.

Proficiency Scale for Quantum Theory (Chemistry)

Score   Description I can statements
4.0 In addition to Score 3.0, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations. -
  3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success.
3.0

“The Standard.” The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.

The student:     

 HS-PS3-2-Develop and use models to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as a combination of energy associated with the motions of particles (objects) and energy associated with the relative position of particles (objects) (for example, create a diagram, drawing, or computer simulation that shows that energy at the macroscopic scale-such as the conversion of kinetic energy to thermal energy or the energy stored due to the position of an object above the Earth or between two electrically charged plates-can be accounted for as either the motion of particles or energy stored in fields).  **See DCI details for PS3-A following this rubric for microscopic scale clarification.) 

HS-PS4-3-Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model, and that for some situations one model is more useful than the other (for example, determine whether experimental evidence supports the claim that electromagnetic radiation can be described by either a wave model or a particle model, as well as the claim that for different phenomena-such as resonance, interference, diffraction, and photoelectric effect-one model is more useful than the other). 

HS-PS4-4-Evaluate the validity and reliability of claims in published materials of the effects that different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter.

-
  2.5 The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and partial knowledge of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
2.

The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).

HS-PS3-2

The student will:
  • Recognize or recall specific vocabulary (for example, conversion, electrically charged, energy, field, kinetic energy, macroscopic scale, molecular energy, motion, particle, position, relative, thermal energy; ground state, excited state).
  • Describe how energy results from the motion of particles (objects).
  • Describe how energy is stored in fields.

HS-PS4-3

The student will:
  • Recognize or recall specific vocabulary (for example, diffraction, electromagnetic, electromagnetic field, electromagnetic radiation, electromagnetic wave, experimental evidence, interference, model, particle model, phenomenon, photoelectric effect, resonance, wave model).
  • Describe the wave model of electromagnetic radiation.
  • Describe the particle model of electromagnetic radiation.
  • Summarize the claims and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model.

HS-PS4-4

The student will:
  • Recognize or recall specific vocabulary (for example, absorb, effect, electromagnetic radiation, energy, frequency, infrared radiation, light, matter, photon, radiation).
  • Summarize claims about the effects that different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter.
-
  1.5 The student demonstrates partial knowledge of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and procedures (Score 3.0 content).
1.0 With help, the student demonstrates a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content). -
  0.5 With help, the student demonstrates a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) but not the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).

Resources

Websites

Vocabulary


SCI-HS.PS4.05

HS SCI Targeted Expectations

[PS4] Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfers

SCI-HS.PS4.05 Communicate technical information about about how some technological devices use the principles of wave behavior and wave interactions with matter to transmit and capture information and energy.

Student Learning Targets:

Student "I can" statements are embedded within the proficiency scale. 

Proficiency Scale (Physical Science)

Score   Description Sample Activity
4.0

In addition to Score 3.0, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.

  • Themselves as an individual (myself, my family, my friends)
  • Our society (environment, economy, infrastructure)
  • Our culture (beliefs, norms, people)
  • Our species (mankind, global, environment)
-
  3.5 In addition to Score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications regarding the more complex content with partial success.
3.0

“The Standard.” The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.

The student will be able to (Light and Sound):
  • Compare and contrast transverse waves (light) and longitudinal waves (sound).
  • Compare and contrast mechanical (sound) and electromagnetic waves (light).
  • Solve problems involving wave speed, frequency, and wavelength.
  • Distinguish between constructive interference and destructive interference
  • Demonstrate how light is refracted as it passes between mediums of different densities.
  • Explain how sonar and ultrasound imaging work.
  • Relate loudness and pitch to properties of sound.   
  • Relate the energy of light to the frequency of electromagnetic waves.        
  • Explain how electromagnetic waves are used in communication, medicine and other areas.
  • Explain the law of reflection.
  • Explain the relationship between particle vibration and wave motion.
-
  2.5 The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and partial knowledge of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
2.0

The student demonstrates no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).

The student will be able to define:
  • infrasound, lens, pitch, photon, prism, sonar, radar, real image, resonance, virtual image, ultrasound, virtual image
However, the student exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes.
 
-
  1.5 The student demonstrates partial knowledge of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and procedures (Score 3.0 content).
1.0 With help, the student demonstrates a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content). -
  0.5 With help, the student demonstrates a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) but not the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
0.0 Even with help, the student demonstrates no understanding or skill. -

Resources

Websites

Vocabulary



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