Disciplinary Core Idea



PS-atom logoPhysical Science

DCI vertical alignment K-12 ...


SCI-00.PS2 DCI: [PS2] Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

    • SCI-00.PS2.01  Conduct an investigation to compare the effects of different strengths or different directions of pushes and pulls on the motion of an object.
    • SCI-00.PS2.02  Analyze data to determine if a design solution works as intended to change the speed or direction of an object with a push or a pull.

SCI-00.PS3 DCI: [PS3] Energy

    • SCI-00.PS3.01 Make observations to determine the effect of sunlight on Earth’s surface.
    • SCI-00.PS3.02 Use tools and materials provided to design and build a structure that will reduce the warming effect of sunlight on Earth’s surface.

First Grade

SCI-01.PS4 DCI: [PS4] Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer

    • SCI-01.PS4.01  Plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence that sound can make materials vibrate and that vibrating materials can make sound.
    • SCI-01.PS4.02  Construct an evidence-based account, through observation, that objects can be seen only when illuminated.
    • SCI-01.PS4.03  Plan and conduct an investigation to determine the effect of placing objects made with different materials in the path of a beam of light.
    • SCI-01.PS4.04  Design and build a device that uses light or sound to solve the problem of communicating over a distance.

Second Grade

SCI-02.PS1 DCI: [PS1] Matter and Its Interactions

    • SCI-02.PS1.01  Plan and conduct an investigation to describe and classify different kinds of materials by their observable properties.
    • SCI-02.PS1.02  Analyze data obtained from testing different materials to determine which materials have the properties that are best suited for an intended purpose.
    • SCI-02.PS1.03  Make observations to construct an evidence-based account of how an object made of small set of pieces can be disassembled and made into a new object.
    • SCI-02.PS1.04  Construct an argument with evidence that some changes caused by heating or cooling can be reversed and some cannot.

Third Grade

SCI-03.PS2 DCI: [PS2] Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

    • SCI-03.PS2.01  Plan and conduct an investigation to prove the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on the motion of an object.
    • SCI-03.PS2.02  Make observations and metric measurements of an object's motion to prove that a pattern can be used to predict future motion.
    • SCI-03.PS2.03  Ask questions to determine cause and effect relationships of static electricity or magnetic interactions between two objects not in contact with each other.
    • SCI-03.PS2.04  Define a simple design problem that can be solved by applying scientific ideas about magnets.

Fourth Grade

SCI-04.PS3 DCI: [PS3] Energy

    • SCI-04.PS3.01  Use evidence to construct an explanation relating the speed of an object to the energy of that object.
    • SCI-04.PS3.02  Make observations to provide evidence that energy can be transferred from place to place by sound, light, heat, and electric currents.
    • SCI-04.PS3.03  Ask questions and predict outcomes about the changes in energy that occur when objects collide.
    • SCI-04.PS3.04  Using the engineering design process build a device that converts energy from one form to another.

SCI-04.PS4 DCI: [PS4] Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer

    • SCI-04.PS4.01  Develop a model of waves to describe patterns in terms of amplitude and wavelength and that waves can cause objects to move.
    • SCI-04.PS4.03  Construct a code to convey information by researching past and present methods of transmitting information.

Fifth Grade

SCI-05.PS1 DCI: [PS1] Matter and Its Interactions

    • SCI-05.PS1.01  Develop a model to describe that matter is made of particles too small to be seen.
    • SCI-05.PS1.02  Measure and graph metric quantities to provide evidence that regardless of the type of change that occurs when heating, cooling, or mixing substances, the total mass of matter is conserved.
    • SCI-05.PS1.03  Make observations and measurements to identify materials based on their properties.
    • SCI-05.PS1.04  Conduct an investigation to determine whether the mixing of two or more substances results in new substances.

SCI-05.PS3 DCI: [PS3] Energy

    • SCI-05.PS3.01  Use models to describe how energy from the sun is converted into food (used for body repair, growth, motion, and to maintain body warmth).

6th Grade Physical Science

SCI-MS.PS1 DCI: [PS1] Matter and Its Interactions

    • SCI-MS.PS1.01  Develop models to describe the atomic composition of simple molecules and extended structures.
    • SCI-MS.PS1.02  Analyze and interpret data on the properties of substances before and after an interaction has occurred to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred.
    • SCI-MS.PS1.03  Gather and analyze information to describe that synthetic materials come from natural resources and impact society.
    • SCI-MS.PS1.04  Develop a model that predicts and describes changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed.
    • SCI-MS.PS1.05 Develop and use a model to describe how the total number of atoms does not change in a chemical reaction and thus mass is conserved.
    • SCI-MS.PS1.06 Design a project to construct, test, and modify a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical processes.

SCI-MS.PS2 DCI: [PS2] Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

    • SCI-MS.PS2.01  Apply Newton's Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects.
    • SCI-MS.PS2.02  Plan an investigation using Newton's First and Second Laws to provide evidence that the change in an object's motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.
    • SCI-MS.PS2.03  Interpret data to determine the factors that affect the strength of electric and magnetic forces.
    • SCI-MS.PS2.04  Use evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects.
    • SCI-MS.PS2.05  Conduct an investigation to provide evidence that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact.

SCI-MS.PS3 DCI: [PS3] Energy

    • SCI-MS.PS3.01  Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to describe the relationships of kinetic energy to the mass of an object and/or the speed of an object.
    • SCI-MS.PS3.02  Using a model describe how the different amounts of potential energy in a system changes when the object's distance changes.
    • SCI-MS.PS3.03  Apply scientific principles to design, construct, and test a device that either minimizes or maximizes thermal energy transfer.
    • SCI-MS.PS3.04  Investigate to determine the relationships among the energy transferred, the type of matter, mass, and change in the average kinetic energy of the particles as measured by the temperature of the sample.
    • SCI-MS.PS3.05  Construct and present arguments to support the claim that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object.

SCI-MS.PS4 DCI: [PS4] Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer

    • SCI-MS.PS4.01  Use mathematical representations to describe a simple model for waves that includes how the amplitude of a wave is related to the energy in a wave.
    • SCI-MS.PS4.02  Develop and use a model to describe that waves are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials.
    • SCI-MS.PS4.03  Evaluate how different forms of technology utilize different signals.

High School Physical Science

SCI-HS.PS1 DCI: [PS1] Matter and Its Interactions

    • SCI-HS.PS1.01  Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms.
    • SCI-HS.PS1.02  Construct an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties.
    • SCI-HS.PS1.03  Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the macro scale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles.
    • SCI-HS.PS1.04  Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical reaction system depends upon the changes in total bond energy.
    • SCI-HS.PS1.05  Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation about the effects of changing the temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a reaction occurs.
    • SCI-HS.PS1.06  Refine the design of a chemical system by specifying a change in conditions that would produce increased amounts of products at equilibrium.
    • SCI-HS.PS1.07  Use mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction.
    • SCI-HS.PS1.08   Develop models to illustrate the changes in the composition of the nucleus of the atom and the energy released during the processes of fission, fusion, and radioactive decay.

SCI-HS.PS2 DCI: [PS2] Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

    • SCI-HS.PS2.01  Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration.
    • SCI-HS.PS2.02  Use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system.
    • SCI-HS.PS2.03  Apply scientific principles, such as Newton's 1st & 3rd Laws, and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision.
    • SCI-HS.PS2.04  Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects.
    • SCI-HS.PS2.05  Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that an electric current can produce a magnetic field and that a changing magnetic field can produce an electric current.
    • SCI-HS.PS2.06  Communicate scientific and technical information about why the molecular-level structure is important in the functioning of designed materials.

SCI-HS.PS3 DCI: [PS3] Energy

    • SCI-HS.PS3.01  Create a mathematical model to calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system when the change in energy of the other component(s) and energy flows in and out of the system are known.
    • SCI-HS.PS3.02  Develop and use models to illustrate that energy is associated with motion and relative position of particles (objects).
    • SCI-HS.PS3.03  Design, build, and refine a device that works within given constraints to convert one form of energy into another form of energy.
    • SCI-HS.PS3.04  Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that the transfer of thermal energy when two components of different temperature are combined within a closed system results in a more uniform energy distribution among the components in the system (second law of thermodynamics).
    • SCI-HS.PS3.05  Develop and use a model of two objects interacting through electric or magnetic fields to illustrate the forces between objects and the changes in energy of the objects due to the interaction.

SCI-HS.PS4 DCI: [PS4] Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer

    • SCI-HS.PS4.01  Use mathematical representations to support a claim regarding relationships among the frequency, wavelength, and speed of waves traveling in various media.
    • SCI-HS.PS4.02  Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model, and that for some situations one model is more useful than the other.
    • SCI-HS.PS4.03  Evaluate the validity and reliability of claims in published materials of the effects that different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter.
    • SCI-HS.PS4.04  Communicate technical information about how some technological devices use the principles of wave behavior and wave interactions with matter to transmit and capture information and energy.