MS-PS2 Categories All categories Not categorized MS-PS1 MS-PS2 MS-PS3 MS-PS4 Prioritized Standards Standard 2: Science Inquiry

Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

Performance Expectations

PS2 Forces and Interactions focuses on helping students understand ideas related to why some objects will keep moving, why objects fall to the ground and why some materials are attracted to each other while others are not. Students answer the question , “How can one describe physical interactions between objects and within systems of objects ?”

At the middle school level, the PS 2 Disciplinary Core Idea is broken down into two sub-ideas: Forces and Motion and Types of interactions. By the end of middle school , students will be able to apply Newton’s Third Law of Motion to relate forces to explain the motion of objects. Students also apply ideas about gravitational, electrical, and magnetic forces to explain a variety of phenomena including beginning ideas about why some materials attract each other while others repel. In particular, students will develop understanding that gravitational interactions are always attractive but that electrical and magnetic forces can be both attractive and negative. Students also develop ideas that objects can exert forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact, through fields . Students are also able to apply an engineering practice and concept to solve a problem caused when objects collide. The crosscutting concepts of cause and effect ; system and system models ; stability and change ; and the influence of science, engineering, and technology on society and the natural world serve as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas.

In the PS2 performance expectations, students are expected to demonstrate proficiency in asking questions, planning and carrying out investigations, and designing solutions, and engaging in argument ; and to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

Calculation Method for DCI

Disciplinary Core Ideas are larger groups of related Performance Expectations. So the Disciplinary Core Idea Grade is a calculation of all the related Performance Expectations. So click on the Performance Expectation name below each Disciplinary Core Idea to access the learning targets and proficiency scales for each Disciplinary Core Idea's related Performance Expectations.

SCI-MS.PS2.01

6th Grade (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS2] Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

SCI-MS.PS2.01 Apply Newton's Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects.

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on balanced (Newton’s First Law) and unbalanced forces in a system, qualitative comparisons of forces, mass and changes in motion (Newton’s Second Law), frame of reference, and specification of units.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS2.A: Forces and Motion The motion of an object is determined by the sum of the forces acting on it; if the total force on the object is not zero, its motion will change. The greater the mass of the object, the greater the force needed to achieve the same change in motion. For any given object, a larger force causes a larger change in motion.

Student Learning Targets:

Knowledge Targets

• I can describe Newton's Third Law of Motion.
• I can identify action and reaction force pairs.

• I can

Skills (Performance) Targets

• I can find the momentum of an object given its mass and velocity.

Product Targets

• I can construct different types of models to represent different systems and their interactions.

Proficiency Scale

1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• Key Vocabulary: Newton's Third Law; input/output, energy, motion, matter, force, momentum, inertia, action, reaction, mass, velocity
• can calculate momentum of an object given its mass and velocity
3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
• apply Newton's Third Law of Motion
• identify and explain for every action there is an opposite and equal reaction. (Third Law)
Sample Activity:
Rube Goldberg Machine
Roller Coaster Lab
Connect each law to a situation

... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors

Resources

Vocabulary

• Newton's 3rd Law of Motion
• energy
• motion
• matter
• force
• inertia
• Action/ Reaction Forces
• Momentum, Mass, Velocity

Websites

• Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

SCI-MS.PS2.02

6th Grade (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS2] Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

SCI-MS.PS2.02 Plan an investigation using Newton's First and Second Laws to provide evidence that the change in an object's motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on balanced (Newton’s First Law) and unbalanced forces in a system, qualitative comparisons of forces, mass and changes in motion (Newton’s Second Law), frame of reference, and specification of units.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS2.A: Forces and Motion The motion of an object is determined by the sum of the forces acting on it; if the total force on the object is not zero, its motion will change. The greater the mass of the object, the greater the force needed to achieve the same change in motion. A larger force causes a larger change in motion. All positions of objects and the directions of forces and motions must be described in an arbitrarily chosen reference frame and arbitrarily chosen units of size. In order to share information with other people, these choices must also be shared.

Student Learning Targets:

• I can

• I can

Skills (Performance) Targets

• I can identify that an object at rest will stay at rest and an object in motion will stay in motion (First Law)
• I can identify inertia (force = mass x acceleration) (Second Law)

Product Targets

• I can apply Newton's First and Second Law of Motion
• I can explain that an object at rest will stay at rest and an object in motion will stay in motion (First Law)
• I can explain inertia (force = mass x acceleration) (Second Law)

Proficiency Scale

1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• Key Vocabulary: Newton's First Law; Newton's Second Law; input output; energy; motion; matter; force; momentum; inertia; mass; velocity; simple machine
3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
• apply Newton's first and second law of motion
• identify and explain that an object at rest will stay at rest and an object in motion will stay in motion. First Law
• identify and explain inertia (force = mass x acceleration). Second Law
• use simple machines to reduce the amount of force or distance required for work
Sample Activity:
Rube Goldberg Machine
Roller Coaster Lab
Connect each law to a situation
Phet site Balancing Act

... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors

Resources

Vocabulary

• Newton's First Law
• Newton's Second Law
• input output
• energy
• motion
• matter
• force
• momentum
• inertia
• mass
• velocity

Websites

• Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

SCI-MS.PS2.03

6th Grade (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS2] Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

SCI-MS.PS2.03 Interpret data to determine the factors that affect the strength of electric and magnetic forces.

Clarification Statement: Examples of devices that use electric and magnetic forces could include electromagnets, electric motors, or generators. Examples of data could include the effect of the number of turns of wire on the strength of an electromagnet, or the effect of increasing the number or strength of magnets on the speed of an electric motor.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS2.B: Types of Interactions Electric and magnetic (electromagnetic) forces can be attractive or repulsive, and their sizes depend on the magnitudes of the charges, currents, or magnetic strengths involved and on the distances between the interacting objects.

• I can

• I can

• I can

• I can

Proficiency Scale

1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors
... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors

Resources

• words
• list

Websites

• Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

SCI-MS.PS2.04

6th Grade (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS2] Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

SCI-MS.PS2.04 Use evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects.

Clarification Statement: Examples of this phenomenon could include the interactions of magnets, electrically-charged strips of tape, and electrically-charged pith balls. Examples of investigations could include first-hand experiences or simulations.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS2.B: Types of Interactions Gravitational forces are always attractive. There is a gravitational force between any two masses, but it is very small except when one or both of the objects have large mass-e.g., Earth and the sun.

Student Learning Targets:

• I can

Reasoning Targets

• I can compare the amount of gravitational forces acting between objects.

Skills (Performance) Targets

• I can explain how every object exerts a gravitational force on every other object.

• I can

Proficiency Scale

1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• Key Vocabulary: force, motion, distance, weight, mass, gravity
• calculate the weight of an object (weight=mass x gravity).
3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
• recognize the relationship between gravity, distance, and mass
• recognize the relationship between weight, gravity and mass
Sample Activity:
Construct and design your own roller coaster.
Jason Coaster Creator
Refer to MS-PS3-2

... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors

Resources

• force
• motion
• distance
• weight
• mass
• gravity

Websites

• Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

SCI-MS.PS2.05

6th Grade (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS2] Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

SCI-MS.PS2.05 Conduct an investigation to provide evidence that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact.

Clarification Statement: Examples of this phenomenon could include the interactions of magnets, electrically-charged strips of tape, and electrically-charged pith balls. Examples of investigations could include first-hand experiences or simulations.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS2.B: Types of Interactions Forces that act at a distance (electric, magnetic, and gravitational) can be explained by fields that extend through space and can be mapped by their effect on a test object (a charged object, or a ball, respectively).

• I can

• I can

• I can

• I can

Proficiency Scale

1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors