Prioritized Standards Categories All categories Not categorized (G) Geometry (MD) Measurement and Data (NBT) Number and Operations in Base Ten (OA) Operations and Algebraic Thinking Prioritized Standards

# Geometry

## Narrative for the (G) Geometry

In Grade 1, students reason about shapes. They describe and classify shapes, including drawings, manipulatives, and physical-world objects, in terms of their geometric attributes. That is, based on early work recognizing, naming, sorting, and building shapes from components, they describe in their own words why a shape belongs to a given category, such as squares, triangles, circles, rectangles, rhombuses, (regular) hexagons, and trapezoids (with bases of different lengths and nonparallel sides of the same length). In doing so, they differentiate between geometrically defining attributes (e.g., “hexagons have six straight sides”) and non-defining attributes (e.g., color, overall size, or orientation).

Students compose two-dimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, half-circles, and quarter-circles) or three dimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) using other shapes. Students also decompose shapes by partitioning circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares, describe the shares using the words such as halves, fourths, and quarters.

## Calculation Method for Domains

Domains are larger groups of related standards. The Domain Grade is a calculation of all the related standards. Click on the standard name below each Domain to access the learning targets and rubrics/ proficiency scales for individual standards within the domain.

#### MAT-01.G.03

(G) Geometry
Cluster: Represent and interpret data.

# Measurement and Data

## Narrative for the (MD) Measurement and Data

First graders continue working on using direct comparison to measure—carefully, considering all endpoints—when that is appropriate. In situations where direct comparison is not possible or convenient, they should be able to use indirect comparison and explanations that draw on transitivity. Once they can compare lengths of objects by direct comparison, they could compare several items to a single item, such as finding all the objects in the classroom the same length as (or longer than, or shorter than) their forearm. Another important set of skills and understandings is ordering a set of objects by length.

Directly comparing objects, indirectly comparing objects, and ordering objects by length are important practically and mathematically, but they are not length measurement, which involves assigning a number to a length. Students learn to lay physical units such as centimeter or inch manipulatives end-to-end and count them to measure a length.

As students work with data in Grades K–5, they build foundations for their study of statistics and probability in Grades 6 and beyond, and they strengthen and apply what they are learning in arithmetic. Kindergarten work with data uses counting and order relations. First- and second-graders solve addition and subtraction problems in a data context.

Students in Grade 1 begin to organize and represent categorical data. For example, if a collection of specimens is sorted into two piles based on which specimens have wings and which do not, students might represent the two piles of specimens on a piece of paper, by making a group of marks for each pile, as shown below (the marks could also be circles, for example). The groups of marks should be clearly labeled to reflect the attribute in question. Students in Grade 1 can ask and answer questions about categorical data based on a representation of the data.

## Calculation Method for Domains

Domains are larger groups of related standards. The Domain Grade is a calculation of all the related standards. Click on the standard name below each Domain to access the learning targets and rubrics/ proficiency scales for individual standards within the domain.

#### MAT-01.MD.03

(MD) Measurement and Data
Cluster: Tell and write time.

#### MAT-01.MD.04

(MD) Measurement and Data
Cluster: Represent and interpret data.

# Number and Operation in Base Ten

## Narrative for the (NBT) Number and Operation in Base Ten

Students’ work in the base-ten system is intertwined with their work on counting and cardinality, and with the meanings and properties of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Work in the base-ten system relies on these meanings and properties, but also contributes to deepening students’ understanding of them.

In first grade, students learn to view ten ones as a unit called a ten. The ability to compose and decompose this unit flexibly and to view the numbers 11 to 19 as composed of one ten and some ones allows development of efficient, general base-ten methods for addition and subtraction. Students see a two-digit numeral as representing some tens and they add and subtract using this understanding.

First graders use their base-ten work to compute sums within 100 with understanding.  Concrete objects or drawings afford connections with written numerical work and discussions and explanations in terms of tens and ones.  First graders also engage in mental calculation, such as mentally finding 10 more or 10 less than a given two-digit number without having to count by ones.

## Calculation Method for Domains

Domains are larger groups of related standards. The Domain Grade is a calculation of all the related standards. Click on the standard name below each Domain to access the learning targets and rubrics/ proficiency scales for individual standards within the domain.

#### MAT-01.NBT.01

(NBT) Number and Operations in Base Ten
Cluster: Extend the counting sequence.

#### MAT-01.NBT.02

(NBT) Number and Operations in Base Ten
Cluster: Understand place value.

##### MAT-01.NBT.01 Demonstrate understanding that the two digits of a two-digit number represent amounts of tens and ones, including:
a. 10 can be thought of as a bundle of ten ones — called a “ten.”.
b. The numbers from 11 to 19 are composed of a ten and additional ones.
c. Multiples of 10 up to 90 represent a number of tens and 0 ones.

# Operations and Algebraic Thinking

## Narrative for the (OA) Operations and Algebraic Thinking

Algebraic thinking is about generalizing arithmetic operations and operating on unknown quantities.  It involves recognizing and analyzing patterns and developing generalizations about these patterns.  In algebra, symbols can be used to represent generalizations. Operations and Algebraic Thinking deals with the basic operations - addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division - the relationships they model, the kinds of problems they can be used to solve, as well as, their mathematical properties and relationships.

First grade students extend their Kindergarten work in three major and interrelated ways. These include representing and solving a new type of problem situation – comparison; representing and solving problems in which the result is unknown, the change is unknown, and the start is unknown. (10 + 2 = ___; 9 + ___ = 15; ___ + 14=20); and develop more sophisticated strategies to extend addition and subtraction problem solving beyond 10, to problems within 20.

Students in 1st grade begin developing an algebraic perspective many years before they will use formal algebraic symbols and methods. They read to understand the problem situation, represent the situation and its quantitative relationships with expressions and equations, and then manipulate that representation if necessary, using properties of operations and/or relationships between operations. Linking equations to concrete materials, drawings, and other representations of problem situations affords deep and flexible understandings of these building blocks of algebra. Learning where the total is in addition equations (alone on one side of the equal sign) and in subtraction equations (to the left of the minus sign) helps students move from a situation equation to a related solution equation.

## Calculation Method for Domains

Domains are larger groups of related standards. The Domain Grade is a calculation of all the related standards. Click on the standard name below each Domain to access the learning targets and rubrics/ proficiency scales for individual standards within the domain.