6th Grade Physical Science


MS-PS3

SCI-MS.PS3

BPSS-SCI logo DCI Physical Science PS3

Energy

Performance Expectations

PS3 help students formulate an answer to the question , “ How can energy be transferred from one object or system to another ?”

At the middle school level, the PS3 Disciplinary Core Idea is broken down into four sub-core ideas: Definitions of Energy, the Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer, the Relationship between Energy and Forces, and Energy in Chemical Process and Everyday Life. Students develop their understanding of important quali tative ideas about energy including that the interactions of objects can be explained and predicted using the concept of transfer of energy from one object or system of objects to another , and the total change of energy in any system is always equal to the total energy transferred into or out of the system. Students understand that object s that are moving have kinetic energy and that objects may also contain stored (potential) energy, depending on their relative positions. Students will also come to know the difference between energy and temperature , and begin to develop an understanding of the relationship between force and energy. Students are also able to apply an understanding of design to the process of energy transfer. 

The performance expectations in PS3 expect students to demonstrate proficiency in developing and using models, planning investigations, analyzing and interpreting data, and designing solutions, and engaging in argument from evidence ; and to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas in PS3 .

Calculation Method for DCI

Disciplinary Core Ideas are larger groups of related Performance Expectations. So the Disciplinary Core Idea Grade is a calculation of all the related Performance Expectations. So click on the Performance Expectation name below each Disciplinary Core Idea to access the learning targets and proficiency scales for each Disciplinary Core Idea's related Performance Expectations.


SCI-MS.PS3.01

Physical Science Logo6th Grade (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS3] Energy

SCI-MS.PS3.01 Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to describe the relationships of kinetic energy to the mass of an object and/or the speed of an object.

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on descriptive relationships between kinetic energy and mass separately from kinetic energy and speed. Examples could include riding a bicycle at different speeds, rolling different sizes of rocks downhill, and getting hit by a whiffle ball versus a tennis ball.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS3.A: Definitions of Energy Motion energy is properly called kinetic energy; it is proportional to the mass of the moving object and grows with the square of its speed.


Student Learning Targets:

Knowledge Targets

  • I can identify variables kinetic energy depends upon.

Reasoning Targets

  • I can

Skills (Performance) Targets

  • I can calculate kinetic energy.
  • I can calculate when work is being done on a system.

Product Targets

  • I can

Proficiency Scale

The Student can ...
1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
  • descriptors
2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
  • Key vocabulary: Kinetic Energy, Velocity, Speed, Joules, Mass
  • calculates kinetic energy using a formula.
  • calculates velocity using a formula.
3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
  • explain the relationship between kinetic energy and mass.
  • explain the relationship between kinetic energy and velocity/speed.
Sample Activity:
Dropping different sized balls from the same height and measuring the rebound of each.
PhET Skate Park Basics simulation.

4 Advanced
... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
  • descriptors

Resources

Vocabulary

  • Kinetic Energy
  • Joules
  • Velocity/ Speed/
  • Mass

Websites

  • Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

SCI-MS.PS3.02

Physical Science Logo6th Grade (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS3] Energy

SCI-MS.PS3.02 Using a model describe how the different amounts of potential energy in a system changes when the object's distance changes.

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on relative amounts of potential energy, not on calculations of potential energy. Examples of objects within systems interacting at varying distances could include: Either a roller coaster cart at varying positions on a hill or objects at varying heights on shelves and the Earth, changing the direction/orientation of a magnet, and a balloon with static electrical charge being brought closer to a classmate’s hair. Examples of models could include representations, diagrams, pictures, and written descriptions of systems.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS3.A: Definitions of Energy A system of objects may also contain stored (potential) energy, depending on their relative positions.
PS3.C: Relationship Between Energy and Forces When two objects interact, each one exerts a force on the other that can cause energy to be transferred to or from the object


Student Learning Targets:

Knowledge Targets

  • I can recognize specific terminology such as gravitational potential energy, gravity, height, Joules, elastic potential energy.

Reasoning Targets

  • I can explain the relationship between potential energy and height/distance.
  • I can explain the relationship between gravitational potential energy and gravity.
  • I can explain the relationship between gravitational potential energy and mass.

Skills (Performance) Targets

  • I can calculate potential energy using a formula.

Product Targets

  • I can

Proficiency Scale

The Student can ...
1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
  • descriptors
2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
  • Key Vocabulary: Potential Energy, Gravitational, Elastic, Chemical, Joules, Nuclear, Height, Gravity
  • calculates potential energy using a formula.
3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
  • recognize the relationship between potential energy and height/distance.
  • recognize the relationship between gravitational potential energy and mass.
Sample Activity:
Phet Skate Park Simulation
Gravitational potential energy on different planets

4 Advanced
... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
  • descriptors

Resources

Vocabulary

  • Gravitational Potential Energy
  • Elastic Potential Energy
  • Chemical
  • Joules
  • Nuclear
  • Gravity
  • Height

Websites

  • Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

SCI-MS.PS3.03

Physical Science Logo6th Grade (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS3] Energy

SCI-MS.PS3.03 Apply scientific principles to design, construct, and test a device that either minimizes or maximizes thermal energy transfer.

Clarification Statement: Examples of devices could include an insulated box, a solar cooker, and a Styrofoam cup (scientific principles could include the science and engineering practices or the engineering design process).
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS3.A: Definitions of Energy Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of particles of matter. The relationship between the temperature and the total energy of a system depends on the types, states, and amounts of matter present.
PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer Energy is spontaneously transferred out of hotter regions or objects and into colder ones.
ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting an Engineering Problem The more precisely a design task’s criteria and constraints can be defined, the more likely it is that the designed solution will be successful.


Student Learning Targets:

Knowledge Targets

  • I can

Reasoning Targets

  • I can

Skills (Performance) Targets

  • I can

Product Targets

  • I can

Proficiency Scale

The Student can ...
1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
  • descriptors
2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
  • descriptors
3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
  • descriptors
4 Advanced
... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
  • descriptors

Resources

Vocabulary

  • words
  • list

Websites

  • Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

SCI-MS.PS3.04

Physical Science Logo6th Grade (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS3] Energy

SCI-MS.PS3.04 Investigate to determine the relationships among the energy transferred, the type of matter, mass, and change in the average kinetic energy of the particles as measured by the temperature of the sample.

Clarification Statement: Examples of experiments could include comparing final water temperatures after different masses of ice melted in the same volume of water with the same initial temperature, the temperature change of samples of different materials with the same mass as they cool or heat in the environment, or the same material with different masses when a specific amount of energy is added.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS3.A: Definitions of Energy Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of particles of matter. The relationship between the temperature and the total energy of a system depends on the types, states, and amounts of matter present.
PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer The amount of energy transfer needed to change the temperature of a matter sample by a given amount depends on the nature of the matter, the size of the sample, and the environment


Student Learning Targets:

Knowledge Targets

  • I can

Reasoning Targets

  • I can

Skills (Performance) Targets

  • I can

Product Targets

  • I can

Proficiency Scale

The Student can ...
1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
  • descriptors
2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
  • descriptors
3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
  • descriptors
4 Advanced
... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
  • descriptors

Resources

Vocabulary

  • words
  • list

Websites

  • Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

SCI-MS.PS3.05

Physical Science Logo6th Grade (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS3] Energy

SCI-MS.PS3.05 Construct and present arguments to support the claim that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object.

Clarification Statement: Examples of empirical evidence used in arguments may include an inventory or other representation of the energy before and after the transfer in the form of temperature changes or motion of object.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer When the motion energy of an object changes, there is inevitably some other change in energy at the same time.


Student Learning Targets:

Knowledge Targets

  • I can

Reasoning Targets

  • I can

Skills (Performance) Targets

  • I can

Product Targets

  • I can

Proficiency Scale

The Student can ...
1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
  • descriptors
2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
  • descriptors
3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
  • descriptors
4 Advanced
... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
  • descriptors

Resources

Vocabulary

  • words
  • list

Websites

  • Title of website with a URL to open in a new window