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#### SCI-MS.PS2.01

6th Grade (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS2] Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

##### SCI-MS.PS2.01 Apply Newton's Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects.

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on balanced (Newton’s First Law) and unbalanced forces in a system, qualitative comparisons of forces, mass and changes in motion (Newton’s Second Law), frame of reference, and specification of units.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS2.A: Forces and Motion The motion of an object is determined by the sum of the forces acting on it; if the total force on the object is not zero, its motion will change. The greater the mass of the object, the greater the force needed to achieve the same change in motion. For any given object, a larger force causes a larger change in motion.

## Student Learning Targets:

### Knowledge Targets

• I can describe Newton's Third Law of Motion.
• I can identify action and reaction force pairs.

• I can

### Skills (Performance) Targets

• I can find the momentum of an object given its mass and velocity.

### Product Targets

• I can construct different types of models to represent different systems and their interactions.

## Proficiency Scale

##### 1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• Key Vocabulary: Newton's Third Law; input/output, energy, motion, matter, force, momentum, inertia, action, reaction, mass, velocity
• can calculate momentum of an object given its mass and velocity
##### 3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
• apply Newton's Third Law of Motion
• identify and explain for every action there is an opposite and equal reaction. (Third Law)
Sample Activity:
Rube Goldberg Machine
Roller Coaster Lab
Connect each law to a situation

... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors

## Resources

### Vocabulary

• Newton's 3rd Law of Motion
• energy
• motion
• matter
• force
• inertia
• Action/ Reaction Forces
• Momentum, Mass, Velocity

### Websites

• Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

#### SCI-MS.PS2.02

6th Grade (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS2] Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

##### SCI-MS.PS2.02 Plan an investigation using Newton's First and Second Laws to provide evidence that the change in an object's motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on balanced (Newton’s First Law) and unbalanced forces in a system, qualitative comparisons of forces, mass and changes in motion (Newton’s Second Law), frame of reference, and specification of units.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS2.A: Forces and Motion The motion of an object is determined by the sum of the forces acting on it; if the total force on the object is not zero, its motion will change. The greater the mass of the object, the greater the force needed to achieve the same change in motion. A larger force causes a larger change in motion. All positions of objects and the directions of forces and motions must be described in an arbitrarily chosen reference frame and arbitrarily chosen units of size. In order to share information with other people, these choices must also be shared.

## Student Learning Targets:

• I can

• I can

### Skills (Performance) Targets

• I can identify that an object at rest will stay at rest and an object in motion will stay in motion (First Law)
• I can identify inertia (force = mass x acceleration) (Second Law)

### Product Targets

• I can apply Newton's First and Second Law of Motion
• I can explain that an object at rest will stay at rest and an object in motion will stay in motion (First Law)
• I can explain inertia (force = mass x acceleration) (Second Law)

## Proficiency Scale

##### 1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• Key Vocabulary: Newton's First Law; Newton's Second Law; input output; energy; motion; matter; force; momentum; inertia; mass; velocity; simple machine
##### 3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
• apply Newton's first and second law of motion
• identify and explain that an object at rest will stay at rest and an object in motion will stay in motion. First Law
• identify and explain inertia (force = mass x acceleration). Second Law
• use simple machines to reduce the amount of force or distance required for work
Sample Activity:
Rube Goldberg Machine
Roller Coaster Lab
Connect each law to a situation
Phet site Balancing Act

... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors

## Resources

### Vocabulary

• Newton's First Law
• Newton's Second Law
• input output
• energy
• motion
• matter
• force
• momentum
• inertia
• mass
• velocity

### Websites

• Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

#### SCI-MS.PS2.03

6th Grade (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS2] Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

##### SCI-MS.PS2.03 Interpret data to determine the factors that affect the strength of electric and magnetic forces.

Clarification Statement: Examples of devices that use electric and magnetic forces could include electromagnets, electric motors, or generators. Examples of data could include the effect of the number of turns of wire on the strength of an electromagnet, or the effect of increasing the number or strength of magnets on the speed of an electric motor.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS2.B: Types of Interactions Electric and magnetic (electromagnetic) forces can be attractive or repulsive, and their sizes depend on the magnitudes of the charges, currents, or magnetic strengths involved and on the distances between the interacting objects.

• I can

• I can

• I can

• I can

## Proficiency Scale

##### 1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors
... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors

## Resources

• words
• list

### Websites

• Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

#### SCI-MS.PS2.04

6th Grade (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS2] Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

##### SCI-MS.PS2.04 Use evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects.

Clarification Statement: Examples of this phenomenon could include the interactions of magnets, electrically-charged strips of tape, and electrically-charged pith balls. Examples of investigations could include first-hand experiences or simulations.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS2.B: Types of Interactions Gravitational forces are always attractive. There is a gravitational force between any two masses, but it is very small except when one or both of the objects have large mass-e.g., Earth and the sun.

## Student Learning Targets:

• I can

### Reasoning Targets

• I can compare the amount of gravitational forces acting between objects.

### Skills (Performance) Targets

• I can explain how every object exerts a gravitational force on every other object.

• I can

## Proficiency Scale

##### 1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• Key Vocabulary: force, motion, distance, weight, mass, gravity
• calculate the weight of an object (weight=mass x gravity).
##### 3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
• recognize the relationship between gravity, distance, and mass
• recognize the relationship between weight, gravity and mass
Sample Activity:
Construct and design your own roller coaster.
Jason Coaster Creator
Refer to MS-PS3-2

... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors

## Resources

• force
• motion
• distance
• weight
• mass
• gravity

### Websites

• Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

#### SCI-MS.PS2.05

6th Grade (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS2] Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

##### SCI-MS.PS2.05 Conduct an investigation to provide evidence that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact.

Clarification Statement: Examples of this phenomenon could include the interactions of magnets, electrically-charged strips of tape, and electrically-charged pith balls. Examples of investigations could include first-hand experiences or simulations.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS2.B: Types of Interactions Forces that act at a distance (electric, magnetic, and gravitational) can be explained by fields that extend through space and can be mapped by their effect on a test object (a charged object, or a ball, respectively).

• I can

• I can

• I can

• I can

## Proficiency Scale

##### 1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors
... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors

## Resources

• words
• list

### Websites

• Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

# Energy

## Performance Expectations

PS3 help students formulate an answer to the question , “ How can energy be transferred from one object or system to another ?”

At the middle school level, the PS3 Disciplinary Core Idea is broken down into four sub-core ideas: Definitions of Energy, the Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer, the Relationship between Energy and Forces, and Energy in Chemical Process and Everyday Life. Students develop their understanding of important quali tative ideas about energy including that the interactions of objects can be explained and predicted using the concept of transfer of energy from one object or system of objects to another , and the total change of energy in any system is always equal to the total energy transferred into or out of the system. Students understand that object s that are moving have kinetic energy and that objects may also contain stored (potential) energy, depending on their relative positions. Students will also come to know the difference between energy and temperature , and begin to develop an understanding of the relationship between force and energy. Students are also able to apply an understanding of design to the process of energy transfer.

The performance expectations in PS3 expect students to demonstrate proficiency in developing and using models, planning investigations, analyzing and interpreting data, and designing solutions, and engaging in argument from evidence ; and to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas in PS3 .

## Calculation Method for DCI

Disciplinary Core Ideas are larger groups of related Performance Expectations. So the Disciplinary Core Idea Grade is a calculation of all the related Performance Expectations. So click on the Performance Expectation name below each Disciplinary Core Idea to access the learning targets and proficiency scales for each Disciplinary Core Idea's related Performance Expectations.

#### SCI-MS.PS3.01

6th Grade (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS3] Energy

##### SCI-MS.PS3.01 Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to describe the relationships of kinetic energy to the mass of an object and/or the speed of an object.

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on descriptive relationships between kinetic energy and mass separately from kinetic energy and speed. Examples could include riding a bicycle at different speeds, rolling different sizes of rocks downhill, and getting hit by a whiffle ball versus a tennis ball.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS3.A: Definitions of Energy Motion energy is properly called kinetic energy; it is proportional to the mass of the moving object and grows with the square of its speed.

## Student Learning Targets:

### Knowledge Targets

• I can identify variables kinetic energy depends upon.

• I can

### Skills (Performance) Targets

• I can calculate kinetic energy.
• I can calculate when work is being done on a system.

• I can

## Proficiency Scale

##### 1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• Key vocabulary: Kinetic Energy, Velocity, Speed, Joules, Mass
• calculates kinetic energy using a formula.
• calculates velocity using a formula.
##### 3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
• explain the relationship between kinetic energy and mass.
• explain the relationship between kinetic energy and velocity/speed.
Sample Activity:
Dropping different sized balls from the same height and measuring the rebound of each.
PhET Skate Park Basics simulation.

... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors

## Resources

### Vocabulary

• Kinetic Energy
• Joules
• Velocity/ Speed/
• Mass

### Websites

• Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

#### SCI-MS.PS3.02

6th Grade (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS3] Energy

##### SCI-MS.PS3.02 Using a model describe how the different amounts of potential energy in a system changes when the object's distance changes.

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on relative amounts of potential energy, not on calculations of potential energy. Examples of objects within systems interacting at varying distances could include: Either a roller coaster cart at varying positions on a hill or objects at varying heights on shelves and the Earth, changing the direction/orientation of a magnet, and a balloon with static electrical charge being brought closer to a classmate’s hair. Examples of models could include representations, diagrams, pictures, and written descriptions of systems.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS3.A: Definitions of Energy A system of objects may also contain stored (potential) energy, depending on their relative positions.
PS3.C: Relationship Between Energy and Forces When two objects interact, each one exerts a force on the other that can cause energy to be transferred to or from the object

## Student Learning Targets:

### Knowledge Targets

• I can recognize specific terminology such as gravitational potential energy, gravity, height, Joules, elastic potential energy.

### Reasoning Targets

• I can explain the relationship between potential energy and height/distance.
• I can explain the relationship between gravitational potential energy and gravity.
• I can explain the relationship between gravitational potential energy and mass.

### Skills (Performance) Targets

• I can calculate potential energy using a formula.

• I can

## Proficiency Scale

##### 1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• Key Vocabulary: Potential Energy, Gravitational, Elastic, Chemical, Joules, Nuclear, Height, Gravity
• calculates potential energy using a formula.
##### 3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
• recognize the relationship between potential energy and height/distance.
• recognize the relationship between gravitational potential energy and mass.
Sample Activity:
Phet Skate Park Simulation
Gravitational potential energy on different planets

... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors

## Resources

### Vocabulary

• Gravitational Potential Energy
• Elastic Potential Energy
• Chemical
• Joules
• Nuclear
• Gravity
• Height

### Websites

• Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

#### SCI-MS.PS3.03

6th Grade (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS3] Energy

##### SCI-MS.PS3.03 Apply scientific principles to design, construct, and test a device that either minimizes or maximizes thermal energy transfer.

Clarification Statement: Examples of devices could include an insulated box, a solar cooker, and a Styrofoam cup (scientific principles could include the science and engineering practices or the engineering design process).
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS3.A: Definitions of Energy Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of particles of matter. The relationship between the temperature and the total energy of a system depends on the types, states, and amounts of matter present.
PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer Energy is spontaneously transferred out of hotter regions or objects and into colder ones.
ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting an Engineering Problem The more precisely a design task’s criteria and constraints can be defined, the more likely it is that the designed solution will be successful.

• I can

• I can

• I can

• I can

## Proficiency Scale

##### 1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors
... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors

## Resources

• words
• list

### Websites

• Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

#### SCI-MS.PS3.04

6th Grade (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS3] Energy

##### SCI-MS.PS3.04 Investigate to determine the relationships among the energy transferred, the type of matter, mass, and change in the average kinetic energy of the particles as measured by the temperature of the sample.

Clarification Statement: Examples of experiments could include comparing final water temperatures after different masses of ice melted in the same volume of water with the same initial temperature, the temperature change of samples of different materials with the same mass as they cool or heat in the environment, or the same material with different masses when a specific amount of energy is added.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS3.A: Definitions of Energy Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of particles of matter. The relationship between the temperature and the total energy of a system depends on the types, states, and amounts of matter present.
PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer The amount of energy transfer needed to change the temperature of a matter sample by a given amount depends on the nature of the matter, the size of the sample, and the environment

• I can

• I can

• I can

• I can

## Proficiency Scale

##### 1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors
... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors

## Resources

• words
• list

### Websites

• Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

#### SCI-MS.PS3.05

6th Grade (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS3] Energy

##### SCI-MS.PS3.05 Construct and present arguments to support the claim that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object.

Clarification Statement: Examples of empirical evidence used in arguments may include an inventory or other representation of the energy before and after the transfer in the form of temperature changes or motion of object.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer When the motion energy of an object changes, there is inevitably some other change in energy at the same time.

• I can

• I can

• I can

• I can

## Proficiency Scale

##### 1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors
... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors

## Resources

• words
• list

### Websites

• Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

# Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer

## Performance Expectations

PS4 help students formulate an answer to the question , “ What are the characteristic properties of waves and how can they be used ? ”

At the middle school level, the PS4 Disciplinary Core Idea is broken down into Wave Properties, Electromagnetic Radiation, and Information Technologies and Instrumentation. Students are able to describe and predict characteristic properties and behaviors of waves when the waves interact with matter. Students can apply an understanding of waves as a means to send digital information.

The performance expectation s in PS4 focus on students demonstrating proficiency in developing and using models, using mathematical thinking , and obtaining, evaluating and communicating information; and to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

## Calculation Method for DCI

Disciplinary Core Ideas are larger groups of related Performance Expectations. So the Disciplinary Core Idea Grade is a calculation of all the related Performance Expectations. So click on the Performance Expectation name below each Disciplinary Core Idea to access the learning targets and proficiency scales for each Disciplinary Core Idea's related Performance Expectations.

#### SCI-MS.PS4.01

6th Grade (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS4] Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfers

##### SCI-MS.PS4.01 Use mathematical representations to describe a simple model for waves that includes how the amplitude of a wave is related to the energy in a wave.

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on describing waves with both qualitative and quantitative thinking.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS4.A: Wave Properties A simple wave has a repeating pattern with a specific wavelength, frequency, and amplitude.

## Student Learning Targets:

### Knowledge Targets

• I can define amplitude, energy, wavelength, frequency, etc.
• I can define a wave, wave crest/peak, wave trough/valley, etc.

### Reasoning Targets

• I can describe the difference between a longitudinal and transverse wave.
• I can characterize physical waves by frequency, wavelength, and amplitude.

### Skills (Performance) Targets

• I can apply these properties to the pitch and volume of sound waves and to the wavelength and magnitude of water waves.
• I can calculate the change in the energy of a wave given the change in the amplitude.

### Product Targets

• I can create a wave of given amplitude.
• I can create a wave with quadruple the energy of a given wave.

## Proficiency Scale

##### 1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• Key Vocabulary: Crest, Trough, Frequency, Amplitude, Speed, Wavelength, Transverse, Longitudinal, Electromagnetic, Mechanical, Rest
##### 3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
• predict the effects of changing frequency, wavelength and amplitude
• explain the relationship between amplitude and energy. (If energy increases, amplitude increases)
Sample Activity:
Use snakey springs/slinky to demonstrate how waves transfer energy

... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors

## Resources

### Vocabulary

• Crest
• Trough
• Frequency
• Amplitude
• Speed
• Wavelength
• Transverse
• Longitudinal
• Electromagnetic
• Mechanical
• Rest

### Websites

• Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

#### SCI-MS.PS4.02

6th Grade (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS4] Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfers

##### SCI-MS.PS4.02 Develop and use a model to describe that waves are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials.

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both light and mechanical waves. Examples of models could include drawings, simulations, and written descriptions.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS4.A: Wave Properties A sound wave needs a medium through which it is transmitted.
PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation When light shines on an object, it is reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through the object, depending on the object’s material and the frequency (color) of the light. The path that light travels can be traced as straight lines, except at surfaces between different transparent materials (e.g., air and water, air and glass) where the light path bends. However, because light can travel through space, it cannot be a matter wave, like sound or water waves.

## Student Learning Targets:

• I can

### Reasoning Targets

• I can compare the refraction of visible light through different materials.
• I can predict how different surfaces and lenses affect the behavior of light waves and the resulting image.

• I can

• I can

## Proficiency Scale

##### 1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• recognize or recall specific terminology, such as:
• transparent, translucent, concave, convex.
• perform basic processes, such as:
identifies sources of light and describes evidence that it moves in a straight line.
Sample Activity:
Identify vocabulary words based on pictures provided showing types of lenses and the effects of transparency, etc…
Identify various pictures as sources of light (or not) and label a picture showing where light rays will go based on the origin of that light.

##### 3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
• compare the refraction of visible light through different materials (transparent and translucent).
• predict how different surfaces and lenses affect the behavior of light waves and the resulting image.
Sample Activity:
Predict/test the outcome of light refraction on various objects in an activity setting.
Create a chart of rules that states how light will behave when reflected and refracted by different surfaces and lenses.

... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors
Sample Activity:
Develop a company brochure including the benefits and restrictions of products offered using the reflection and refraction of light including lenses and mirrors

## Resources

• words
• list

### Websites

• Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

#### SCI-MS.PS4.03

6th Grade (SCI) Physical Science Standards
[PS4] Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfers

##### SCI-MS.PS4.03 Evaluate how different forms of technology utilize different signals.

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on a basic understanding that waves can be used for communication purposes. Examples could include using fiber optic cable to transmit light pulses, radio wave pulses in WiFi devices, and conversion of stored binary patterns to make sound or text on a computer screen.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS4.C: Information Technologies and Instrumentation Digitized signals (sent as wave pulses) are a more reliable way to encode and transmit information.

• I can

• I can

• I can

• I can

## Proficiency Scale

##### 1 Beginning
... with help, demonstrate a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes (Score 2.0 content) and some of the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 2 Developing
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes but exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (Score 3.0 content).
• descriptors
##### 3 Proficient
“The Standard.”
... demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and processes that were end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors
... demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications regarding more complex material that go beyond end of instruction expectations.
• descriptors

## Resources

• words
• list

### Websites

• Title of website with a URL to open in a new window

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