Prioritized Standards Categories All categories Not categorized (CC) Counting and Cardinality (G) Geometry (MD) Measurement and Data (NBT) Number and Operation in Base Ten (OA) Operations and Algebraic Thinking Prioritized Standards

# Counting and Cardinality

## Narrative for the (CC) Counting and Cardinality

Counting and Cardinality and Operations and Algebraic Thinking are about understanding and using numbers. Counting and Cardinality underlies Operations and Algebraic Thinking as well as Number and Operations in Base Ten. It begins with early counting and telling how many in one group of objects. Addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division grow from these early roots.

Students usually know or can learn to say the counting words up to a given number before they can use these numbers to count objects or to tell the number of objects. In Kindergarten, students develop understanding of the relationship between numbers and quantities and connect counting to cardinality - to count a group of objects, they pair each word said with one object.  Students also develop fluency with counting to 100 by ones and tens, count to answer "how many" questions, use counting strategies to compare groups of objects, and apply counting strategies when solving addition and subtraction problems.

## Calculation Method for Domains

Domains are larger groups of related standards. The Domain Grade is a calculation of all the related standards. Click on the standard name below each Domain to access the learning targets and rubrics/ proficiency scales for individual standards within the domain.

#### MAT-00.CC.01

Kindergarten (MAT) Targeted Standard
(CC) Counting Cardinality
Cluster: Know number names and the count sequence.

#### MAT-00.CC.03

Kindergarten (MAT) Targeted Standard
(CC) Counting Cardinality
Cluster: Know number names and the count sequence.

#### MAT-00.CC.05

Kindergarten (MAT) Targeted Standard
(CC) Counting Cardinality
Cluster: Know number names and the count sequence.

##### MAT-00.CC.05 Count to answer how many questions.
a. Tell how many objects up to 20 are in an arranged pattern (e.g., a line or an array) or up to 10 objects in a scattered configuration.
b. Represent a number of objects up to 20 with a written numeral.
c. Given a number from 1-20, count out that many objects.

#### MAT-00.CC.06

Kindergarten (MAT) Targeted Standard
(CC) Counting Cardinality
Cluster: Compare numbers.

# Geometry

## Narrative for the (G) Geometry

Understanding and describing shapes and space is one of the two critical areas of Kindergarten mathematics. Students develop geometric concepts and spatial reasoning from experience with two perspectives on space: the shapes of objects and the relative positions of objects.

In the domain of shape, students learn to match two-dimensional shapes even when the shapes have different orientations. They learn to name shapes such as circles, triangles, and squares, whose names occur in everyday language, and distinguish them from non-examples of these categories, often based initially on visual models. Students also begin to name and describe three-dimensional shapes with mathematical vocabulary, such as “sphere,” “cube,” “cylinder,” and “cone.” They identify faces of three-dimensional shapes as two-dimensional geometric figures and explicitly identify shapes as two-dimensional (“flat” or lying in a plane) or three-dimensional.

A second important area for kindergartners is the composition of geometric figures. Students not only build shapes from components, but also compose shapes to build pictures and designs.

Finally, in the domain of spatial reasoning, students discuss not only shape and orientation, but also the relative positions of objects, using terms such as “above,” “below,” “next to,” “behind,” “in front of,” and “beside.”  They use these spatial reasoning competencies, along with their growing knowledge of three-dimensional shapes and their ability to compose them, to model objects in their environment.

## Calculation Method for Domains

Domains are larger groups of related standards. The Domain Grade is a calculation of all the related standards. Click on the standard name below each Domain to access the learning targets and rubrics/ proficiency scales for individual standards within the domain.

#### MAT-00.G.02

Kindergarten (MAT) Targeted Standard
(G) Geometry
Cluster: Identify and describe shapes (squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, hexagons, cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres).

# Measurement and Data

## Narrative for the (MD) Measurement and Data

Measurement is the process of assigning a number to a magnitude of some attribute shared by some class of objects, such as length, relative to a unit. Students often initially hold undifferentiated views of measurable attributes, saying that one object is “bigger” than another whether it is longer, or greater in area, or greater in volume, and so forth. For example, two students might both claim their block building is “the biggest.” Conversations about how they are comparing—one building may be taller (greater in length) and another may have a larger base (greater in area)—help students learn to discriminate and name these measureable attributes. As they discuss these situations and compare objects using different attributes, they learn to distinguish, label, and describe several measureable attributes of a single object

As students work with data in Grades K–5, they build foundations for their study of statistics and probability in Grades 6 and beyond, and they strengthen and apply what they are learning in arithmetic. Kindergarten work with data uses counting and order relations. First- and second-graders solve addition and subtraction problems in a data context.

Students in Kindergarten classify objects into categories, initially specified by the teacher and perhaps eventually elicited from students. For example, in a science context, the teacher might ask students in the class to sort pictures of various organisms into two piles: organisms with wings and those without wings. Students can then count the number of specimens in each pile. Students can use these category counts and their understanding of cardinality to say whether there are more specimens with wings or without wings.

## Calculation Method for Domains

Domains are larger groups of related standards. The Domain Grade is a calculation of all the related standards. Click on the standard name below each Domain to access the learning targets and rubrics/ proficiency scales for individual standards within the domain.

# Number and Operation in Base Ten

## Narrative for the (NBT) Number and Operation in Base Ten

Students’ work in the base-ten system is intertwined with their work on counting and cardinality, and with the meanings and properties of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Work in the base-ten system relies on these meanings and properties, but also contributes to deepening students’ understanding of them.

In Kindergarten, teachers help children lay the foundation for understanding the base-ten system by drawing special attention to 10. Children learn to view the whole numbers 11 through 19 as ten ones and some more ones. They decompose 10 into pairs such as 1 9, 2 8, 3 7 and find the number that makes 10 when added to a given number such as 3. Students use objects, math drawings, and equations to describe, explore, and explain how the “teen numbers,” the counting numbers from 11 through 19, are ten ones and some more ones.

## Calculation Method for Domains

Domains are larger groups of related standards. The Domain Grade is a calculation of all the related standards. Click on the standard name below each Domain to access the learning targets and rubrics/ proficiency scales for individual standards within the domain.

#### MAT-00.NBT.01

Kindergarten (MAT) Targeted Standard
(NBT) Number and Operation in Base Ten
Cluster: Work with numbers 11­-19 to gain foundations for place value.

# Operations and Algebraic Thinking

## Narrative for the (OA) Operations and Algebraic Thinking

Counting and Cardinality and Operations and Algebraic Thinking are about understanding and using numbers. Counting and Cardinality underlies Operations and Algebraic Thinking as well as Number and Operations in Base Ten. It begins with early counting and telling how many in one group of objects. Addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division grow from these early roots.

In Kindergarten, students develop meanings for addition and subtraction as they encounter problem situations, and they extend these meanings as they encounter increasingly difficult problem situations in Grade 1. They represent these problems in increasingly sophisticated ways. And they learn and use increasingly sophisticated computation methods to find answers. Students learn and use mathematical and non-mathematical language, especially when they make up problems and explain their representation and solution.

Students in Kindergarten work with the following types of addition and subtraction situations: Add To with Result Unknown; Take From with Result Unknown; and Put Together/Take Apart with Total Unknown and Both Addends Unknown.

## Calculation Method for Domains

Domains are larger groups of related standards. The Domain Grade is a calculation of all the related standards. Click on the standard name below each Domain to access the learning targets and rubrics/ proficiency scales for individual standards within the domain.

#### MAT-00.OA.02

Kindergarten (MAT) Targeted Standard
(OA) Operations and Algebraic Thinking
Cluster: Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from.

#### MAT-00.OA.05

Kindergarten (MAT) Targeted Standard
(OA) Operations and Algebraic Thinking
Cluster: Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from.